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Phần 15: Từ được nhấn mạnh trong bài thi Nghe

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Phát hiện từ được nhấn mạnh và đoán trước được điều mà người ta sẽ nói là một kỹ năng quan trọng trong bài thi Nghe của kỳ thi IELTS.

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1) Clip 1: Listening for Signpost Words

2) Clip 2: Vocabulary Exercise

3) Printable Documents

a) Notes for Study

IELTS Tip

Listen out for signpost words in the listening tasks.

They can help you follow the conversations, discussions and lectures more easily, and help you understand and predict what the speaker is going to say next.

Signpost words also serve as clues which are helpful in identifying answers.

 

LISTENING FOR SIGNPOST WORDS

In conversations, talks, discussions or lectures (the discourse forms used in the four sections of the IELTS listening test), speakers use words which help listeners understand the message being conveyed.

These words are called linking signals or signpost words. They are used to link or connect one idea with another, signal what is happening in a discourse, or show the

direction in which a conversation, talk, discussion or lecture is heading.

Recognising signpost words and using them to anticipate what a speaker will be doing next can help you follow the conversations and talks in the four listening passages more readily and identify answers more successfully. Practise using these signpost words in your conversations and discussions. Be careful though, because some signpost words are more appropriate for informal situations.

 

Functions and signpost words

Signpost words have a range of functions. The most common functions and the most frequently used signpost words are examined below.

Beginning

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• open a talk, lecture

• take up a new topic

• re-open an interrupted conversation

• invite someone into a conversation

OK, okay, now, right, well

Example: lecture

Now, are you all here? I suppose we should begin by looking at how to create a business plan.

 

Closing

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• concluding a lecture, talk

• temporarily closing a topic

• finishing a topic or conversation

• showing you want to end a conversation

so, OK, okay, right, anyway

great, good, fine, lovely (more informal – conversations)

Example: conversation

Jane: And we can get some flowers to take to the hospital.

Bob: Yeah.

Jane: Some roses.

Bob: She loves roses.

Jane: Fine.

Bob: Right. I’ll see you tonight.

Jane: Okay. Lovely.

 

Gaining time (fillers)

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• indicating the speaker is thinking

• initiating a conversation

you know, well, let me see, I mean, um, mmm, eh

Example: conversation, talk, discussion, lecture

Well, I think planes are the safest form of transportation and, you know, it’s the quickest way to get from A to B.

 

Summarising and generalising

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• leading into a summary of points

• generalising on what was previously said

in conclusion, to conclude, to summarise, to sum up, overall (more formal choices)

to sum up briefly, in a word, in all, in brief, altogether, in short, more generally, thus, then, in a nut shell

Example: discussion, lecture

Was the experiment successful? In a word, no.

 

Reformulating ideas

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• explaining ideas more clearly

• modifying ideas

• expressing things more clearly

• refining something that was said

in other words, I mean, or rather, so to speak, in a manner of speaking, strictly speaking, well, that is to say (that’s to say)

to put it simply, to put it bluntly/to put it mildly (more informal)

Example: more formal expression

Strictly speaking, a tomato is not a vegetable but a fruit.

 

Explaining, giving examples

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• giving an example

• expanding on a meaning

for example, for instance, in other words, in particular, that is to say (that’s to say), that is say (informal)

Example: conversation, talk, discussion, lecture

There are many physical activities they can do after school. For example, they can play soccer, swim, ride their bikes, play tennis and even mow the lawn.

 

Resuming

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• continuing after an interruption

• restating a diverted topic

so, anyway, as I was saying, where was I?, what was I saying?, where were we? oh yes

Example: discussion

A: More and more young people are being encouraged to take out private health insurance. The cost of providing free medical care for all is just too great for governments.

B: Insurance these days is really expensive. I had to renew my insurance on an old car and it was almost double what I paid last year. House insurance wasn’t any cheaper.

A: As I was saying, young people and professionals in particular earning a good salary should be responsible for their own health cover.

 


Changing the subject

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• introducing a digression

• changing the topic

• diverting the subject

incidentally, by the way, come to think of it, talking of …, speaking of …, that reminds me, oh

Example: conversation

Speaking of movies, did you see that new film about vampires?

 

Sequencing

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• indicating the order in which things occur

• signalling how one thing follows another

• organising

A B C (using letters of the alphabet), and, and then, for a start, next, going back to, in general, afterwards, on top of that, in the first place, lastly (more commonly used in spoken language)

first (firstly), first of all, second (secondly), finally, lastly

Example: discussion

What we really need to discuss is A, the timing of junk food advertisements on TV and B, what we’re going to do about it.

 

Adding something

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• adding to something that has been said previously

also, again, besides, what is more (what’s more), then, too, as well (as), further, on top of this/that, likewise (more commonly used in spoken language)

in addition, additionally, further, furthermore, moreover, equally (more formal choices)

Example: conversation, talk, discussion, lecture

Winning the trip to Europe was a dream come true but, on top of that we got two thousand dollars cash to spend.

 

Contrasting

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• showing a difference between two or more people or things

• opposing

instead, conversely, then, on the contrary, but, on the one hand … on the other hand, alternatively, however, yet, although, though, unlike

Example: conversation, talk, discussion, lecture

Travelling the world is always exciting but nothing can beat the joy of coming home.

 

Concession

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• being prepared to accept part of an argument which has been stated earlier

• surprising or unexpected statement in light of what has been said earlier

while, (al)though, however, nonetheless, nevertheless, notwithstanding, still, yet, in any

case, at any rate, in spite of, despite that, at the same time, even if

Example: conversation, talk, discussion, lecture

There’s little chance Paul will be selected for the Olympic team. Nevertheless, we’ve got to be hopeful.

 

Cause, reason, result, consequences

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• expressing causes, effects, results, consequences

accordingly, as a consequence, as a result, consequently, in light of this/that, therefore, hence, because, because of, due to, on account of, owing to

Example: conversation, talk, discussion, lecture

Classes were cancelled because of the snowstorms.

 

Timing

Function

Signpost words and phrases

• linking of events in time

afterwards, meantime, in the mean time, meanwhile, eventually, subsequently, then, after that, then

Example: conversation, talk, discussion, lecture

Your car can’t be repaired until Monday but, in the meantime, we’ll give you a courtesy vehicle.

 


b) Learning Activities

Practise and consolidate your learning about signpost words by completing our activities.

Remember to refer to the Study Notes for this episode if you need help.

The answers for all activities are on page 3.

ACTIVITY 1

What information is being conveyed in each sentence based on the signpost words used? Choose the appropriate function from the choices in the box below. You may use any function more than once.

A         resuming                   D         gaining time

B         summarising           E         intensifying

C         timing                       F          reformulating ideas

  

1. The report had too many errors. His manager was, to put it mildly, annoyed.

2. The doctor can see you tomorrow. Meanwhile, take some aspirin and rest in bed.

3. In a nut shell, the construction of the day care centre is ready to go.

4. As I was saying, there just isn’t enough support for the office restructure.

5. There are high levels of pollution in the city. The government, you know, is going to restrict the number of cars entering city centres.

6. As a matter of fact, there are no restrictions on the goods.

7. The shopping complex eventually opened for business two years after the fire.

8. Bungy jumping was quite an experience, or rather a terrifying experience.

9. In short, I’m glad I went to my high school reunion.

10. Let me see, autumn is probably the best time of year because the weather is very pleasant.

 

ACTIVITY 2

Choose the best ending based on the signpost word used in each sentence.

1. We were hoping the weather would improve so

a. it wouldn’t be cold.

b. we could go on our picnic.

2. There are some good movies that are worth seeing. Alternatively,

a. you could go to the cinema in the city.

b. you could take in some of the night life.

3. Despite being good at maths,

a. Hilary couldn’t get a teaching position.

b. Hilary was offered a teaching position.

4. It’s really convenient to take the overnight train. As a matter of fact,

a. we wouldn’t advise doing that.

b. that’s what we did.

5. There are many tasty dishes, in particular

a. the roast duck with steamed vegetables.

b. the ones served in the Thai restaurant.

6. The electrical storm caused a black out. In the meantime,

a. we lit a candle and used a battery-operated radio.

b. there were no lights or radio transmission available.

7. They left the party early on account of

a. the impending storm.

b. the time.

8. I’m glad I’m studying accounting because

a. my father chose the subject.

b. I like working with numbers.

9. I really did well in the sciences and languages but

a. failed history and geography.

b. passed history and English.

10. It’s best to eat plenty of fruit and vegetables because

a. your risk of heart disease can improve.

b. your risk of heart disease can decrease.

ANSWERS ACTIVITY 1

1. F

2. C

3. B

4. A

5. D

6. E

7. C

8. F

9. B

10. D

 

ANSWERS ACTIVITY 2

1. b

2. b

3. a

4. b

5. a

6. a

7. a

8. b

9. a

10. b

 


c) Transcript

Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

In this episode we'll look at signpost words. These are words and phrases that help the listener follow what someone is saying, and work out what they are about to say.

Listen to this woman talking about Chinese New year in Melbourne:

Well, she's visiting from Vietnam, and we're just here to celebrate the Chinese New Year. I guess it's more quieter here. I mean, it's pretty noisy today, but over in Vietnam, it'd be, like, much bigger, yep. There'd be a lot more people around as well.

When she says 'I mean', the listener knows she is about to explain more about her statement. Listen again:

Well, she's visiting from Vietnam, and we're just here to celebrate the Chinese New Year. I guess it's more quieter here. I mean, it's pretty noisy today, but over in Vietnam, it'd be, like, much bigger, yep.

Recognising signpost words and anticipating what the speaker will say are important skills for the IELTS Listening Test.

In the test a speaker may use a technical term you don't know, but if you are listening carefully you might also hear a definition of it.

In the next clip the speaker is talking about the problem of running out of fuel.

Listen for the technical term and its definition:

This is a worldwide problem – increasing traffic – not only because it's clogging our roads but because of the fuels it uses. And whether vehicles use petrol or diesel or liquefied petroleum gas, it all comes from under the ground and we're running out of it, which is why researchers are now turning to biofuels – fuels that can be grown instead of mined.

There are a number of signpost words here. When the speaker says 'not only because' and 'but because' the listener knows he is about to give two reasons why increasing traffic is a problem. Listen again:

This is a worldwide problem – increasing traffic – not only because it's clogging our roads but because of the fuels it uses.

He also uses the words 'whether' and 'or'. This tells the listener he is about to mention two alternative scenarios:

And whether vehicles use petrol or diesel or liquefied petroleum gas, it all comes from under the ground and we're running out of it.

Finally, he uses the word 'instead'. That shows he is going to give an alternative to the first kind of fuel mentioned. Listen:

… which is why researchers are now turning to biofuels – fuels that can be grown instead of mined.

Biofuels are 'fuels that can be grown instead of mined'. So now as you follow the talk you would be listening for something that is grown:

They're researching how to extract biofuel oils not from canola and other seed crops, but from tiny plants called microalgae.

He says 'not from seed crops but from tiny plants called microalgae'.

So microalgae are tiny plants. 'Called' is the signpost word – when you hear it, you will get a name or term you might not be familiar with.

And he uses the word 'but' to introduce the contrast between seed crops and tiny plants. Listen again:

They're researching how to extract biofuel oils not from canola and other seed crops, but from tiny plants called microalgae.

Another common signpost phrase that signals an unusual name is 'referred to as', used here by someone talking about hemp:

Inside the stem is the pith, which is referred to as the hurd fibre. And this is the white part there.

What's the signpost phrase in the next clip?

Grampians national park is commonly known as Gariwerd as well which is the Indigenous term used.

'Known as' – Grampians national Park is known as Gariwerd as well. It's another name for it.

Sometimes a speaker may use an abbreviation as in the next clip about a motorcycle engine. Notice that he signposts this by saying 'what's called a':

We've taken one of these engines and we've put it in an environment where it's very dynamic. You've got centrifugal acceleration, you've got the bike leaning, so we had to make some modifications. What we chose was what's called a CVT, a continuously varying transmission, the sort of transmission that you see on many scooters.

He uses the abbreviation CVT and follows with the full form of the word 'a continuously varying transmission'. He also provides an explanation of CVT – the sort of transmission that you see on many scooters:

What we chose was what's called a CVT, a continuously varying transmission, the sort of transmission that you see on many scooters.

Recognising these signposts alerts you to the use of technical terms or abbreviations in a talk or tells you that the speaker will follow with a definition or explanation.


The next clip is of a man talking about a grand house. What words indicate a cause of something?

Martindale hall was built in 1879. It was built for a 21 year old sheep farmer, a young man called Edmund Bowman Junior who had a rather inflated impression of his importance in the world and decided he wanted to live a lifestyle with servants and a grand house. He unfortunately lost the place after a decade, about 11 years due to a drought.

'Due to a drought'. A drought is a severe lack of rain, which meant that he couldn't make any money. 'Due to' means 'because of' or 'as a result of'. Like these phrases, it signals an explanation or a cause.

What word in the next clip tells the listener the speaker is about to talk about a result or outcome?

We treat it as our home and the guests treat it as their home therefore it's just like a house that you live in. It responds and stays happy.

Therefore. The guests treat it as their home therefore it's just like a house you live in. It's not like a museum.

'Therefore' is an important word to listen for in more formal contexts such as lectures. It tells you that the statement you are about to hear is a result, or caused by, the first statement.

The less formal word 'so' can be used instead of therefore. Listen for it in this clip:

Diesel engines are more fuel efficient so you'll go much further on a tankful of diesel than you would on a tankful of petrol.

We could also say 'you'll go further on a tankful of diesel because diesel engines are more efficient.' Notice the different order.

Some signpost words tell you that more is going to be added to what is first said.

You can say 'in addition':

In addition to our TV show, Study English has a website.

Or you can say 'as well as':

As well as a TV show, Study English has a website.

Listen for another phrase like these:

Not only is it a museum during the day but when we shut we then have house guests who come and use all the artefacts.

The house is a museum and a guesthouse.

Not only is it a museum, it is also a guesthouse.

It's important to know when a speaker is about to give an example. Often they'll say 'for example', but they can also say 'for instance', like this:

Being a private nature reserve we've got all sorts of critters that live here in the wide range of habitats that we have. So for instance come night time there's the possums, owls, bats.

Let's listen for one more signpost word, even though.

It's used in the next clip to talk about stick insects and needle bugs:

Even though they live in different places and eat different things, they look very similar because they both use the same trick to survive.

Even though. Even though they live in different places, they look the same.

This phrase is used to show that what follows is surprising, or unexpected.

For instance, you could say 'even though the weather was bad, we still enjoyed ourselves'.

That's all for now.

To find more information about signpost words, visit our Study English website.

The address is: australianetwork.com/studyenglish.

Good Luck with your studies.

 

(Nguồn UTS: Insearch and Australia Network)

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Đọc tiếp

Phần 14: Phương pháp đọc tổng quát

Được viết bởi Set Education. Đăng ngày 24/05/2010. Đăng trong Free IELTS Online. Lượt xem : 12279

Thông thường có hai dạng thi IELTS – dạng Học thuật và dạng Tổng quát. Điểm khác biệt chính giữa hai hình thức thi này là các bài đọc trong phần thi dạng Tổng quát có tính thực tế và liên quan nhiều hơn đến cuộc sống hàng ngày.

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1) Clip 1: General Training Reading 

2) Clip 2: Vocabulary Exercise

3) Printable Documents

a) Notes for Study

IELTS Tip

Practise skimming and scanning to make your reading more efficient. This will also help to build your confidence.

Remember you do not need to know the meaning of every word to answer a question. Use the context to help you with the meaning of an unknown word.

 

GENERAL TRAINING READING

The IELTS General Training Reading module consists of three sections with 12 – 14 questions in each. There are 40 questions in total to answer in 60 minutes. This means finding the answer in 1.5 minutes. No extra time is given to transfer answers so it is important to write them directly onto the answer sheet.

The number of reading passages and text types used in each section of the test vary.

Section

Number of Reading Passages

Text Types

One

2-3 short passages

bus and train timetables, airline schedules; entertainment brochures; hotel accommodation; directories; indexes; resumes; curriculum vitae

Two

2 passages

work-related situations and contexts: job descriptions; staff and professional development opportunities; instruction manuals

Three

1 longer passage

general interest topics based on issues in society: newspaper and magazine articles; texts from the Internet

 

Question Types

There is a variety of question types used in each section and may include any of the following:

• matching paragraphs with headings

• multiple choice

• short answer

• summary completion

• sentence completion

• true, false, not given/yes, no, not given (no information)

• matching lists/phrases

• classification

• table/flow chart completion

• labelling a diagram

These question types test a variety of reading comprehension skills including:

• scanning

• skimming

• previewing

• identifying main ideas

• understanding the relationship between words (synonyms, opposites, linking words)

The notes below look at some question types, general training text types and practice tasks. The Reading Passages can be found in the Activity Sheet for this episode.

Text Type:                            Section 1 – Advertisement

Reading Passage:             CAREER OPPORTUNITIES


Question Type:                   Short Answers

Short answer questions test your ability to locate specific information in a text and are typical of a section one reading passage.

These are generally Wh-type questions.

Wh-question

Specific information

who?

person

what?

thing

where?

place

which?

thing

when?

time

Why?

reason

how?

way, manner

how much? how many?

quantity, amount

 

There is not enough time in the test to read the texts closely and answer all the questions required. So, it is important to use skills and strategies to help you answer the questions quickly and accurately.

Here are some skills and strategies to use for answering short answer type questions effectively and efficiently.

Short Answer Questions

Strategies

Skills

check instructions to see how many words and/or numbers you can write; a number can mean, for example, a full mobile number or a double digit page number

following instructions

highlight the wh-word and key words in each question

scanning for specific details

match and read around the words/phrases for your answer

recognising synonyms/paraphrases helps to match the relevant information.

 

Text Type:                            Section 2 – Job Description

Reading Passage:             Office Manager

Question Type:                   Multiple Choice

Multiple choice questions test your understanding of main ideas or specific details, usually factual information. Three or four alternative answers are given but only one of these provides true or factual information. The other choices may be partly correct or not refer to any of the information in the passage.

There are two types of multiple choice questions:

• question followed by 3-4 options

• unfinished statement followed by 3-4 options

Here are some skills and strategies to use for answering multiple choice questions quickly and accurately.

Multiple Choice Questions

Strategies

Skills

highlight key words in the questions and options

scan the reading passage to locate the relevant section by matching key words

check each option with the relevant section in the reading passage

eliminate each inappropriate or wrong answer by reading in detail

check the answer you are left with is true or factually correct with the information in the passage

understanding factual information

 

Text Type:                            Section 2 – Job Description

Reading Passage:             OFFICE MANAGER

Question Type:                   True, False, Not Given/Yes, No, Not Given

These questions test your ability to identify and understand factual information or a writer’s point of view. You need to decide whether a statement is true or false according to the information in the reading passage, or whether there is no information at all relating to the statement in the passage.

When practising these task types use the following skills and strategies to improve speed and accuracy.

True, False, Not Given/Yes, No, Not Given

Strategies

Skills

highlight key words in the statements

scanning the reading passage to locate the relevant section

match the same, similar or related information

recognising synonyms, opposites, paraphrasing

decide whether the statement agrees, contradicts or there is insufficient information to make a decision

understanding/interpreting facts, opinions, viewpoints

 

Text Type:                            Section 2 – Job Description

Reading Passage:             OFFICE MANAGER

Question Type:                   Sentence Completion

Sentence completion requires you to fill in a gap with up to three words and/or a number from the passage.

Practise using the following skills and strategies when answering sentence completion questions.

Sentence Completion

Strategies

Skills

identify the kind of information is missing, e.g. adjective, noun, verb and/or number – time, date, measurement

predicting the content of the gap

highlight the key words in the sentence

scanning the reading passage to locate the relevant section

match the same, similar or related information

recognising synonyms, opposites, paraphrasing

write the word/s exactly as in the passage

checking the sentence is grammatically correct and make sense

watch your spelling – copy the word correctly

checking spelling

 


b) Learning Activities

Practise and consolidate your learning about the General Reading Test by completing our activities. Remember to refer to the Study Notes for this episode if you need help.

The answers for all activities are on the last page.

 

ACTIVITY 1

Use the skills and strategies for short answer questions to answer questions 1-6 below which are based on Reading Passage Section 1: CAREER OPPORTUNITIES, that's on the following page.

 

SECTION 1

Questions 1-6

Look at the index for career opportunities in the given newspaper excerpt on the following page and answer the questions below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the reading passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.

1. In which newspaper are the jobs advertised?

 

2. On what page can you find a job in the travel industry?

 

3. What is the deadline for placing an ad for the Saturday and Sunday edition?

 

4. Which number can you ring to place an ad without being charged for the call?

 

5. On what page can you find a job for a computer analyst?

 

6. What is the method of payment for placing an ad?

 

READING PASSSAGE – SECTION 1

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

 

THE DAILY COURIER January 11, 2010

www.careeropportunities.com.au

 

accounting                           2                      interstate & overseas jobs              13

administration

& office support                    2                      IT & telecommunications             14

architecture

& city planning                    3                      legal                                                   16

banking & finance               4                      management                                    17

community services          5                      marketing                                         18

education                              6                      PR & media                                       20

engineering

& manufacturing                8                      property & real estate                   21

government: local                9                      sales & retail                                     22

hospitality & tourism         10                    training services                             24

HR & recruitment                 12                    transport                                            25

  


To place an advertisement

classifieds@dailycourier.com

Phone 9876 1234 Fax 9877 4321 Toll-free 1 800 061 551

Deadlines

Thurs 7pm for Sat & Sun; Fri 5pm for Mon; 5pm day prior for Tues – Fri

Credit Cards

Mastercard, Visa, Amex, Bankcard

 


ACTIVITY 2

The following set of questions (numbers 7-17) is based on Reading Passage Section 2 - OFFICE MANAGER on the following page. Use the skills and strategies for each specific question type from the Study Notes to practise answering these questions.

 

SECTION TWO       QUESTIONS 7-17

Questions 7-9

Choose the correct letter A, B or C.

Write your answers in boxes 7-9 on your answer sheets.

7. According to information in the job description, the employer is …

A continuing to expand and grow in Greenfield.

B looking for an eager and career-focused employee.

C seeking an energetic employee who lives in Greenfield.

 

8. According to information in the job description, the successful candidate would be …

A recruiting new staff and training them.

B giving presentations and writing newsletters.

C in charge and control of the office.

 

9. According to information in the job description, the applicant must have …

A completed university studies with a business focus

B university qualifications in business and computer programs

C previous experience in management

 

Questions 10-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?

In boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet, write:

TRUE                         if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE                       if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN              if the information is not given in the passage

10. The salary excludes employer contributions to a pension plan.

 

11. The Office Manager would be responsible for managing filing systems.

 

12. Senior managers take responsibility for writing reports on staff performance.

 

13. The candidate would be selected on his/her ability to troubleshoot.

 

Questions 14-17

Complete the sentences below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the reading passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.

14. The employer is looking to fill a _______________ position.

 

15. To be successful in the role, the candidate must have excellent organisational, _______________ and people skills.

 

16. The applicant must show evidence of having worked no less than ____________ in an office setting.

 

17. Those applying for the job must respond fully to the ______________.

 


READING PASSAGE – SECTION 2

OFFICE MANAGER

City of Greenfield

Vibrant, modern and energetic, Greenfield with a population of 87,000, is a city of choice and opportunity. The city is experiencing significant growth and expansion, and the Council is leading the way in managing and delivering high quality services to its local community.

An exciting career opportunity exists for an enthusiastic individual with good communication skills, and a proven track record in office administration.

Position Description

Title

Office Manager

Salary (Administrative Officer Level 13)

$65,500 - $73,800 per annum (including superannuation contribution)

Employment Status

Permanent Full Time

Position No.

CGC0914

 

Responsibilities

• running and managing the office

• developing and implementing new administrative systems

• managing administrative staff

• delegating work to staff and managing office workload

• writing reports for senior management, including reports on service and staff performance

• promoting staff development and training

• assisting senior management in the preparation of presentations and newsletters

 

Key Selection Criteria

• demonstrated high level organisational skills

• demonstrated ability to manage performance and motivate people

• well developed interpersonal and communication skills

• ability to identify and provide solutions to a range of administrative issues

• friendly, proactive and flexible approach in carrying out duties

 

Qualifications

• tertiary level qualifications in business, office management or related field

• at least five years experience working in a similar environment

• knowledge of and experience with the following computer software: Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, Publisher, Power Point), database programs, e-mail, web browser

 

Enquiries: John Smith on 9876 5432

Closing Date: 5pm Friday, 1 July

For further information and online applications visit www.greenfield.nsw.gov.au/careers

Applicants MUST address all the selection criteria.

Applications by mail:

PO Box 27

Greenfield NSW 2999

 

ANSWERS ACTIVITY 1

1. Daily Courier

2. 10

3. Thur 7pm

4. 1 800 061 551

5. 14

6. credit card or credit cards

 

ANSWERS ACTIVITY 2

MULTIPLE CHOICE

7. B

8. C

9. A

 

TRUE / FALSE / NOT GIVEN

10. False

11. NG

12. False

13. True

 

SENTENCE COMPLETION

14. permanent full time

15. communication

16. five years

17. selection criteria


c) Transcript

Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

There are two IELTS Tests - the Academic Test and the General Training Test.

Today we're going to look at the Reading Module of the General Training Test.

The main difference between the General Test and the Academic Test is that the texts you have to read are more practical and related to everyday life.

The General Reading Test is divided into 3 sections:

Section 1 has up to 3 short texts that you are likely to come across, such as entertainment brochures, bus timetables, accommodation lists and instructions.

Section 2 has 2 passages that are work-related, for example job descriptions, and instructions for using facilities at work.

Section 3 has one longer passage on a general topic, often a magazine article.

Let's have a closer look at a typical short text that you would be asked about in Section 1.

The questions you may be asked about a page like this only need short answers.

For example: 'On what page is the article about childhood obesity?'

You scan the page to find a title that mentions childhood obesity or means the same and find the answer: 'Are children getting fatter?' - page 12.

It helps to be familiar with the way these texts are laid out. You need to practise scanning these types of texts to find the information that relates to the question. Scanning means looking for key words.

In the next section, Section 2, you will be asked about a work-related text that is a bit more complex, such as this job advertisement.

It is important to know that information in job ads is presented in a particular way.

Being aware of the lay out will help you locate answers more quickly.

Because the texts in section 2 are longer, it is useful to preview them.

Let's reduce the ad to its headings.

We have: City of Greenfield; Position Description; Responsibilities; Key Selection Criteria and Qualifications.

Under 'City of Greenfield' which is the name of the employer, we have some information about the employer:

"Vibrant, modern and energetic, Greenfield is a city of choice and opportunity. The city is experiencing significant growth and expansion and the Council is leading the way in managing and delivering high quality services to its local community."

And we have the sales pitch, which is there to persuade suitable people to apply:

"An exciting career opportunity exists for an enthusiastic individual with good communication skills and a proven track record in office administration."

'Position description' tells you exactly what the job is - the title, salary and if it is full time or part time.

Under 'Responsibilities' are listed the things you would need to do or the duties you would have to perform.

'Key Selection Criteria' covers the skills that the employer considers necessary for the job and 'Qualifications' are, of course, your experience and education.

The final section of the ad has all the information needed by anyone who wants to apply.

So, if you were asked in what part of the ad you would find a duty such as running and managing an office, where would it be?

It would be in the Responsibilities section.

It is very useful to be able to know exactly where to look because it saves vital time.

Because the test deals with texts that are work-related, it is expected that you will be familiar with the terms used in the working world. Listen to this woman describing how she went about finding a job:

I just handed my résumé around at any other shop that I could find and then I just got a phone call from them asking to come in for an interview and they just asked questions such as, what was my prior experience, what sort of qualities I could bring to the job.

She uses a number of 'job' words. To find work, she said she 'handed her résumé around'.

A Résumé is a summary of your work experience and education. It's a document that tells an employer all they need to know about you. A résumé is usually written out as a list with headings. A more formal term for this list is the Latin term curriculum vitae, which often gets shortened to CV in speech and writing.

Now, what sort of experience was she asked about?


And then I just got a phone call from them asking to come in for an interview and they just asked questions such as, what was my prior experience, what sort of qualities I could bring to the job.

An interview is a formal discussion with the employer where they try to find out who is the best person for the job.

She was asked about her prior experience, which means the work she's done before.

In the next clip what word is used to mean 'job'?

I've been working for Telstra virtually since I left school, so it's 37 years ago now. But in various forms I went through and did a lot of technical training and then with the change in the workforce and changing technology, they didn't require the physical work to be done any more so I eventually went to a couple of different positions and then finally finished up transferring to the area I'm in now.

He talks about having a couple of different 'positions'. Position is another word for job. He could also have said 'role'.

Position, job and role are words that refer to the specific thing that you do. More general terms are occupation, profession and trade.

What's the profession of the man in the next clip?

A normal day at my job's during the night, actually. I work night shift and I'm a nurse, an enrolled nurse at a War Veterans' Home. I now work in the hostel section of it and look after 70 residents.

He's a nurse, so his profession is nursing. A profession is a job that requires formal learning, such as teaching. Trades are the sorts of jobs that involve a combination of skill and work with your hands, such as carpentry or plumbing.

The general term for all types of job is occupation.

There is one other general term worth knowing. Listen out for it in this clip:

Turning professional I guess at my age of 19 is quite, is different, it's really cool I guess you know lots of my school friends are still at uni and you know just still working on building their career I guess.

Career. Career refers to the work you do over a lifetime or to the work you do in a particular area. You will hear people talk about someone's sporting career or artistic career.

To finish, let's listen to someone talking about the process of finding a job:

I found an advertisement in the paper, went for it. Out of 30 applications they had 30 interviews. Then they narrowed it down to five second interviews. I've had my second interview and now I'm actually waiting for a response. Today, one of my friends rang up saying they've actually rang him for a character reference.

She talked about a second interview. That's when you go back to the employer for another interview. It's a good sign and means that you're one of the people they are considering.

She also talked about a friend being rung up for a character reference. Often job ads will ask you to list what are called referees. These are people who can say that you can do the job. They are often people you have worked with before.

Knowing how job ads are structured and being familiar with the language of the workplace will help you with the General Training IELTS test.

Getting to know the sort of texts that are likely to be in the reading test will increase your confidence and make finding the answers in good time much easier.

Good luck with your studies.

See you next time.

 

(Nguồn UTS: Insearch and Australia Network)

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Phần 13: Các kỹ năng đọc và dạng câu hỏi

Được viết bởi Set Education. Đăng ngày 20/05/2010. Đăng trong Free IELTS Online. Lượt xem : 13694

Môn thi kỹ năng đọc học thuật trong kỳ thi IELTS yêu cầu khả năng đọc hiệu quả và chính xác. Do không có đủ thời gian để đọc tất cả các bài viết một cách sát sao nên bạn cần phát triển khả năng hiểu thông tin một cách nhanh nhạy.

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1) Clip 1: Reading Skills and Question Types 

2) Clip 2: Vocabulary Exercise

3) Printable Documents

a) Notes for Study

IELTS Tip

Manage your time efficiently and effectively – if you can’t answer a question quickly, leave it and return to it before you go on to answer questions in the next reading section.

Use the strategies you have learnt for the different question types to help you answer more quickly.

READING SKILLS AND QUESTION TYPES

The IELTS Academic Reading Test requires efficient and accurate reading of three separate texts of approximately 700 to 900 words each. The topics are drawn from current and global issues in society and the texts based on magazine, journal or newspaper articles. The three texts become progressively more difficult.

Text difficulty is determined by

• vocabulary

• length of paragraphs and

• language complexity

Each of the three sections of the test has 12-14 questions for a total of 40 questions that have to be answered in 60 minutes. So, on average, that is 1.5 minutes per question. There is not enough time to read three lengthy texts closely, so it is important to have good reading skills. These skills will be the tools which can help you manage your time more efficiently and help you find your answers in the reading passages a lot quicker.

Question Types

There is a variety of question types used in the Reading module, which you need to become familiar with.

• matching paragraphs with headings

• multiple choice

• short answer

• summary completion

• sentence completion

• true, false, not given/yes, no, not given (no information)

• matching lists/phrases

• classification

• table/flow chart completion

• labelling a diagram

These question types test a variety of reading comprehension skills including:

• scanning

• skimming

• previewing

• identifying main ideas

• understanding the relationship between words (synonyms, opposites, linking words)


Question Types, Strategies and Skills

Question Type: Matching Paragraphs with Headings

Matching paragraphs with headings is another question type used in the reading test.

The purpose of this question type is to test the following range of reading comprehension skills:

Matching Paragraphs with Headings

Skills

Explanation

skimming paragraphs for a general understanding

Skimming means reading very quickly to get a general sense of what the paragraph is about.

differentiating between main ideas and examples

Focus on the general idea and disregard any details in the paragraph such as examples.

understanding the relationship between words and phrases

Recognising synonyms, paraphrases and linking words help to more readily match

relevant information with a heading.

identifying the topic or main idea in the paragraph

The heading is a paraphrase of the topic or main idea in the paragraph.

 

Because time is of the essence, it is important to use strategies so that you can answer the questions as quickly and accurately as possible. Here are some strategies for answering this question type.

Matching Paragraphs with Headings

Strategies

Explanation

read the list of headings and highlight the key words

Familiarising yourself with the headings and key words gives you an idea what to look out

for.

note any similarities in the headings

Some headings may be similar so check how they differ.

skim the paragraph to find the topic sentence or topic idea

Topic sentences can be the first, second or last sentence in the paragraph. Be prepared

that there may not be a topic sentence. You will then need to look for ideas that are

repeated or related.

think about synonym for or paraphrasing the topic sentence or topic idea

This helps to match the main idea in the paragraph with a possible heading.

choose the heading

Choose the heading which best summarises the general idea of the paragraph.

 

Question Type: Short Answers

This question type tests your ability to locate specific details or a particular piece of information in the reading text. The answers are in the order of the passage.

There are two kinds of short answer question.

• answering a Wh-question

Wh-question

Specific information

who?

person

what?

thing

where?

place

which?

thing

when?

time

Why?

reason

how?

way, manner

how much? how many?

quantity, amount

 

• listing up to 3 things, e.g. names, names of objects, places and other things

Here are the skills tested and strategies to use in order to answer this question type quickly and accurately.

Short Answer Questions

Skills

Explanation

scanning for specific details

Scanning means reading very quickly focusing on key words to find a specific piece of information that answers a particular question.

understanding the relationship between words and phrases

Recognising synonyms/paraphrases helps to match the relevant information.

following instructions

Use the correct number of words and/or number allowed for the question. If instructions

are not followed accurately your answer will be marked wrong even though the information is correct.

 

Short Answer Questions

Strategies

Explanation

highlight the wh-word and key words in each question

This helps to focus on the specific piece of information you need to look for.

scan the reading passage until you locate the same or similar information as in the question

Finding synonyms or paraphrases of the same information helps you to locate the area you need to read for your answer.

check instructions to see how many words and/or numbers you can write

You can easily loose marks by not following instructions.

 


b) Learning Activities

Practise and consolidate your learning by completing our activities. Both activities refer to Reading Passage 1 which you will find on page 3.

The answers for all activities are on the last page.

ACTIVITY 1

Use the skills and strategies for matching paragraphs with headings to answer questions 1-6 below which are based on Reading Passage 1 Childhood Obesity: On Being Overweight and Obese. (Questions 1-6 in Activity 1 and 7-12 in Activity 2 together form a set of questions for one reading section. There are three sections in the real IELTS Reading Test. You should spend about 20 minutes on each.)

Reading Passage 1 (which you will find on page 3) has six paragraphs A-F.

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number i-x in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

i. Initial short-term consequences

ii. Statistical data on obesity

iii. Developing healthy eating habits

iv. Grim prospects for obese children

v. Findings yield concerns about childhood obesity

vi. Professional health care support leads to success

vii. Introduction to a regime of physical activity

viii. Treatment for obesity

ix. Causes and effects of gaining excess weight

x. Risks associated with obesity

 

1 Paragraph A          _________                4 Paragraph D          __________

2 Paragraph B          _________                5 Paragraph E          __________

3 Paragraph C          _________                6 Paragraph F          __________

 

ACTIVITY 2

Use the skills and strategies for short answer questions to answer questions 7-12 below which are based on Reading Passage 1 Childhood Obesity: On Being Overweight and Obese. (Questions 1-6 in Activity 1 and 7-12 in Activity 2 together form a set of questions for a reading section. There are three sections in the real IELTS Reading Test. You should spend about 20 minutes on each.)

Questions 7-10

Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage (which you will find on page 3) for each.

7. In what form is excessive energy stored as?

 

8. Who are obese children frequently bullied or teased by?

 

9. Which organisation was involved in finding a treatment for obesity in children?

 

10. What is the recommended amount of physical activity for children per day?

 

Questions 11-12

Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each, name TWO types of technological activities that cause obesity in children.

Write the types next to 11 and 12 on your answer sheet.

11. ___________________________________________

 

12. ___________________________________________


READING PASSAGE 1

Childhood Obesity

______________________________

On Being Overweight and Obese

A. There can be no doubt that our children are gaining weight at an alarming rate. In a study conducted by the National Institute of Childhood Health in the 1990s, one quarter of Australian children was found to be in the overweight or obese weight ranges. Over a decade later, that number has nearly doubled. For children in the overweight category, it has nearly doubled to 43.7% and more than tripled from1.3 to 3.3% for obese children. Researchers are estimating that by the year 2020 the percentages will reach epidemic proportions – 55% overweight and 10% obese – if the necessary health and lifestyle adjustments are not made. The issue is that parents are just not heeding the advice of experts, and this is a major concern for health authorities.

 

B. It is a well-known fact that children who are physically inactive are at greater risk of becoming obese. With the increase in sedentary activities such as playing computer games or watching television, children are not expending enough energy, therefore leaving excess energy to be stored as body fat. But technological activities are not the only threat. The kinds of food choice aggressively marketed towards working families have lead to a higher consumption of processed and take-away foods which are often high in calories, especially fat and sugar, but low in nutrition. Convenience, ease of preparation and the preferences of demanding children tend to outweigh the benefits of more healthy food choices including fresh fruits and vegetables, for timestrapped parents who are struggling to cope with the demands of work and their responsibilities to the family.

 

C. The challenges of modern life though cannot justify the serious consequences for children’s health and well-being in both the long and short terms. Research has shown there is a strong link between childhood obesity and obesity in adulthood that results in debilitating or life-threatening conditions. These include cardiovascular disease and respiratory illnesses such as asthma or even type-2 diabetes. The findings from a recent study published in the Journal of International Studies on Childhood Obesity show that the chances of premature death in adulthood are greatly increased because of obesity during childhood.

 

D. The short-term effects of obesity on children can be equally devastating. These effects are usually the first consequences to be experienced and fall under the category of adverse emotional and social problems. It has been well-documented by researchers and confirmed by parents and teachers alike that obese children have low self-esteem and poor body image. As a result they easily suffer at the hands of their peers who often bully, harass or tease them. Retreating into themselves, they become socially isolated and depressed. If left untreated, the prospects for these children become grim.

 

E. There is, fortunately, widespread agreement throughout the medical community on the treatment for obesity in children. Though prevention is always better than cure, the Childhood Health Association has developed an effective program, which combines two treatments: the development of healthy eating patterns and the maintenance of an active lifestyle. Treatment begins in the home. Children are encouraged to eat a variety of foods from the main food groups including fruit and vegetables, dairy, protein, carbohydrates and fats, but only appropriate amounts from each of the groups. For example, consumption of foods high in saturated fats and sugar, which are energy dense and usually found in children’s snacks, has to be carefully monitored and restricted. Parents are advised to help change their children’s behaviour and choose more nutritional foods, especially for snacks.

F. The second part of the treatment is becoming active and enjoying physical activity, which needs to occur in tandem with developing good eating habits. It is important that exercise be fun for a child if the program is to succeed. Treatment usually begins with low intensity exercise walking to and from school, and walking or playing with the dog after school. Building up to a moderate level of exercise the child should be encouraged to play sport with their friends and family. Where the family is active together, the chances of success are better. The goal is for the child to be physically active for a minimum of 60 minutes a day and restrict sedentary home activities to a maximum of two hours a day. This program offers ongoing support of health professionals for both parents and children, which has been shown to increase the chances of success.

 

ACTIVITY 1 ANSWERS

1 Paragraph A          v

2 Paragraph B          ix

3 Paragraph C          x

4 Paragraph D          i

5 Paragraph E          iii

6 Paragraph F          vii

 

ACTIVITY 2 ANSWERS

7. body fat

8. their peers

9. Childhood Health Association

10. minimum 60 minutes

11. playing computer games (MUST have the word games)

12. watching television

 


c) Transcript

Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

In the IELTS Reading Test you have to answer 40 questions in 60 minutes – almost 1 question every minute. There are 3 separate pieces of writing of about 900 words each. There is not enough time to read the texts closely so you need to develop the ability to find information quickly.

This is a skill you'll use all the time in your studies.

Let's trace how you might find English language TV programs [online]. Because they are on Australia Network, you start at their homepage. You look around the page for the word 'English'. There's Learning English … click on that. Now you have a number of choices – you can either read the summaries as they flick past, or you can go to each program's site. Let's go to Passport to English. What's it about? Here's the heading – About Passport to English, so this is the paragraph to read. Notice that you only glance at the rest of the page when you are looking for specific information in this way.

Moving your eyes quickly over a page like this is called scanning. The ability to do this with a page of text is part of what's assessed in the Reading Test. Let's look at a typical reading passage: [note this passage can also be found on page 3 of the downloadable Activity Sheet for this episode].

It's best to start by reading the title and sub-title of the text and look for any pictures or italicised words. This will tell you what the text is about.

Childhood Obesity is the title and On Being Overweight and Obese is the subtitle.

What do you already know about the topic?

If you've been keeping up-to-date with current affairs you would have heard that some children are putting on weight at an alarming rate and this is affecting their health. Parents and health authorities are worried.

At this point you know what to expect – you have previewed the text.

So it's a good idea to keep up with the news because current issues are often topics for the Reading Test.

The next thing you need to do is quickly look through the questions for the passage.

There are different kinds, but first we'll look at a multiple choice question.

According to information in the text, childhood obesity can cause:

A. early death in children based on a recent study.

B. breathing problems and diabetes later in life.

C. an impaired immune system

The question says 'According to information in the text'. This means you must scan the text to find out the correct answer. You can't rely on your general knowledge.

The key words in the question are 'childhood obesity' and 'can cause'. The word 'cause' alerts you that the text will be discussing effects of childhood obesity.

'Can cause' means likely to happen, so you need to look for any effects mentioned in the text as a possible result of childhood obesity

You need to look out for phrases that match what the question is asking such as 'results in', 'shows that', 'causes' or 'leads to'

Let's look at the question again:

According to information in the text, childhood obesity can cause:

A. early death in children based on a recent study.

B. breathing problems and diabetes later in life.

C. an impaired immune system

Let's look at the first option – A. early death in children based on a recent study.

The key words are 'early death', 'children' and 'recent study'.

Now you need to scan the text for these words or words with the same meaning.

Quickly scanning the first paragraph, you can see no relevant information – it's not talking about effects.

The next paragraph is relevant – 'recent study', 'show that' and 'death'. Let's read the sentence.

"The findings from a recent study published in the Journal of International Studies on Childhood Obesity show that the chances of premature death in adulthood are greatly increased because of obesity during childhood."

Death in adulthood, not in children. So we can rule out A as the answer.

Let's check C – can obesity cause an impaired immune system?

There's nothing written about the immune system here – but there is a list of diseases and the phrase you're looking for – 'results in'.

"Research has shown there is a strong link between childhood obesity and obesity in adulthood that results in debilitating or life-threatening conditions. These include cardiovascular disease, respiratory illnesses such as asthma or even type-2 diabetes."


So it says diabetes is an effect. What about breathing problems? 'Respiratory illnesses' – they're breathing problems.

So 'B' is the correct answer.

Questions in the Reading Test can be about cause and effect relationships, so you must be able to quickly recognise the words that are markers for this information and how the sentences are structured. Let's look closely at the correct answer and the relevant sentence from the passage.

The answer is: Childhood obesity can cause breathing problems and diabetes later in life. The words 'can cause' mark this as a cause/effect relationship. The cause is childhood obesity.

You can also see childhood obesity in the first sentence from the passage. Even though it says 'childhood obesity and obesity in adulthood', it still includes childhood obesity as a cause.

The important synonym for 'can cause' is 'results in'. Another phrase with this meaning that could have been used here is 'leads to'.

So we have the cause childhood obesity and the cause marker 'leads to' or 'results in'. Where's the effect? In the answer the effect is 'breathing problems and diabetes'.

Again you need to look for synonyms. There's a list of effects – cardiovascular disease, respiratory illnesses such as asthma and type-2 diabetes.

Diabetes is a clear match and, as we said earlier, respiratory illnesses includes breathing problems.

It doesn't matter that the text includes other effects as long as the two in the answer are included.

Let's look at another type of question.

There is a short answer question that requires you to answer using no more than 3 words.

Let's try one.

Based on recent findings, what can greatly increase as a result of obesity in early childhood?

The 2 or 3 word answer is in the text. The key words that would help you locate it are 'recent findings', 'greatly increase', 'as a result of' and 'early childhood'.

We've already skimmed the text, so we know that we won't find this answer in the first paragraph.

So we check the last paragraph again – there – findings from a recent study. The sentence reads:

"The findings from a recent study published in the Journal of International Studies on Childhood Obesity show that the chances of premature death in adulthood are greatly increased because of obesity during childhood."

The question is:

Based on recent findings, what can greatly increase as a result of obesity in early childhood?

The answer is premature death.

Remember that you can't answer with any more than 3 words, so you can't write for instance 'chances of premature death', even though this is true.

For the Reading Section of the IELTS Test you need to practise skills and question types. There will not be enough time to read all the passages carefully, so you need to develop the skill of scanning for key phrases.

But when you go to our website, take the time to read carefully and you should find yourself better prepared for the challenge of the IELTS Test. The address is: australianetwork.com/studyenglish.

Good luck with you studies.

See you next time.

 

(Nguồn UTS: Insearch and Australia Network)

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Phần 12: Ngữ điệu

Được viết bởi Set Education. Đăng ngày 20/05/2010. Đăng trong Free IELTS Online. Lượt xem : 12109

Ngữ điệu hay cách lên xuống giọng đóng vai trò quan trọng trong phát âm tiếng Anh bởi nó chuyển tải ý nghĩa của lời nói theo nhiều cách. Trong phần này chúng ta cũng sẽ tìm hiểu nguyên nhân vì sao sử dụng đúng cách ngữ điệu, trọng âm và các dạng nhấn là yếu tố thiết yếu cho việc nói tiếng Anh tự nhiên và lưu loát.

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1) Clip 1: Intonation 

2) Clip 2: Vocabulary Exercise

3) Printable Documents

a) Notes for Study

IELTS Tip

Be aware of and listen out for English stress and rhythm patterns. Practise these patterns by imitating the speech of native speakers.

In the IELTS interview remember to speak with a clear and strong voice. Use a rising tone when asking for clarification and a falling tone when making a statement.

 

INTONATION

Intonation is a feature of pronunciation, one of the criteria by which your Speaking is assessed. Other features which define this criterion include the following.

Pronunciation Features

Rhythm

Number and length of stressed syllables 

Stress

Syllable and sentence stress 

Intonation

Rising and falling tones of your voice 

Sounds

Pronunciation of sounds

 

Speaking English naturally and fluently means speaking with English stress and rhythm patterns. It is sentence stress that actually gives the English language its rhythm. Try saying this sentence aloud.

I really admire my university professor.

How many stresses are there in the sentence?

 

1

2

3

4

I

'really ad

'mire my uni

'versity pro

'fessor

 

There are four strong stresses or beats.

Now, tap out the beats with your hands. The beat occurs on the strong stresses or syllables.

a

1 and a

2 and then a

3 and then a

4

 

The stressed syllables occur at regular intervals while the unstressed ones in between are said more quickly to keep the rhythm pattern of English.

 

Rhythm and sentence stress

English is a stress-timed language. This means that the timing between stressed syllables in a spoken sentence comes at regular intervals regardless of the number of syllables that may occur between the stressed ones. There may be one, two or three syllables between the stressed ones as in the example above.

Stressed syllables occur on certain words within a spoken sentence. There are two types of word in sentences:

• content or information words

• function or grammar words

Content words are the important words in the sentence. They carry the meaning or sense and are stressed.

Function words are the smaller words and give the sentence its structure and make it grammatically correct.

The following table shows the types and examples of content and function words.

Content words – stressed

main verbs 

admire, teach, know, write, think, dream, learn, talk, describe, ask 

nouns 

professor, rhythm, knowledge, information, success, experience 

adjectives 

nice, good, talented, smaller, excited, famous, confident, popular

adverbs

really, quickly, surprisingly, creatively, environmentally-friendly

negatives

aren’t, can’t, don’t, no, not, none

demonstratives

this, that, these, those

wh-question words

who, what, when, which, why

 

Function words – unstressed

pronouns

I, you, he, she, his, her, it , we, our, they, their

prepositions

at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, with

articles

a, an, the

conjunctions

and, but, or, for, because, as, while, although, so, yet

Auxiliary verbs

be, do, have

modal auxiliary verbs

will, can, may, might, could, would, should, must

 


Rhythm patterns of a sentence are created using stressed and unstressed syllables. The stressed syllables carry the strong beat. They are pronounced longer and somewhat louder. Unstressed syllables are weak and pronounced using a short vowel /i/ or schwa /ә/.

Here are some examples of rhythm patterns. A phonetic transcription is given of the unstressed syllables and/or words.

1. He’s a tall man with dark hair.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

He’s a /'hizә/

'tall

'man with /wiθ/

'dark

'hair

2. You promised to help me with my pronunciation.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

You

/ju:/

'promised to

/mistә/

'help me with my pronunci

/mi wiθ mai prәn nsi/

'ation

3. The city is full of great restaurants and pubs.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

beat 5

The

/dә/

'city is

/tij z/

'full of

/әv/

'great

'restaurants and

/tr ntsәn/

'pubs.

 4. My goal in life is to run my own business in five years’ time.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

beat 5

beat 6

beat 7

My

/mai/

'goal in

/in/

'life is to

/iztә/

'run my own

/maijә /

'business in

/nәsin/

'five

'years’

'time.

 5. She’s the funniest person I’ve ever met.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

She’s the

/∫izdә/

'funniest

/nijәst/

'person I’ve

/sәn aiv/

'ever

'met.

 

Communicating different meaning

It is important to know that placing a stronger emphasis on a word in an utterance can also affect its meaning. In the single utterance below a different word is stressed changing the meaning in each.

Stressed word

Meaning

I’d like you to talk to her older sister.

The emphasis is on you, meaning that the person is referring to you specifically, and not someone else.

I’d like you to talk to her older sister.

The emphasis is on talk, meaning that the person doesn’t want you to write, email or take any other action.

I’d like you to talk to her older sister.

The emphasis is on older, meaning that it’s not the younger or the oldest sister, but the older one that the person wants you to talk to.

I’d like you to talk to her older sister.

The emphasis is on the sister, meaning that it’s the sister in particular that the person wants you to talk to and not her brother.

 

Practising using rhythm and the stress patterns of English will help to improve not only your speaking but listening skills as well. Because English is a stressed-timed language not every word will be heard loudly and clearly. Being aware of this can help overcome some difficulties when listening. Be careful also that particular meaning may be conveyed when more emphasis is placed on a word.

 


b) Learning Activities

ACTIVITY 1

Practise the rhythm patterns of these utterances.

1. I started learning English three years ago.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

beat 5

beat 6

I

'started

'learning

'English

'three

'years a

'go.

 2. The match was really exciting.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

The

'match was

'really ex

'citing.

 3. I prefer living in the countryside because the air is fresher.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

beat 5

beat 6

I pre

'fer

'living in the

'countryside be

'cause the

'air is

'fresher.

 4. My brothers are quite different from each other.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

beat 5

My

'brothers are

'quite

'different from

'each

'other.

 5. I’m not sure I agree with that.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

I’m not

'sure I a

'gree with

'that.

 6. The government should invest more money in education.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

beat 5

The

'government should in

'vest

'more

'money in edu

'cation.

 7. Hopefully, there’ll be a change in smoking habits.

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

'Hopefully there’ll be a

'change in

'smoking

'habits.

 8. I’ll probably go to Europe for my holidays.

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

beat 5

I’ll

'probably

'go to

'Europe for my

'holidays.

 9. I believe a good teacher must enjoy teaching.

 

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

beat 5

I be

'lieve a

'good

'teacher must en

'joy

'teaching.

 10. People need to be more aware of their health.

beat 1

beat 2

beat 3

beat 4

beat 5

'People

'need to be

'more a

'ware of their

'health.

 

ACTIVITY 2

Match the utterance on the left with the correct rhythm pattern on the right. The example below shows how.

Example

I enjoy music.

di di 'DA 'DAdi

I en

joy

'music

di di

'DA

'DAdi

 

1

Listen to the music.

A

'DAdi di 'DA

2

She’s a happy person.

B

'DA di 'DA 'DA

3

Talk to him today.

C

'DA 'DA

4

Answer the phone.

D

di di 'DA 'DA

5

I’d like to describe my trip.

E

'DAdi di di 'DAdi

6

I enjoy tennis.

F

di 'DA di di 'DA di 'DA

7

He’s my best friend.

G

'DA di 'DA

8

Please respond.

H

'DA di 'DAdi 'DA

9

Stand still.

I

di di 'DA 'DAdi

10

Have a nice day.

J

di di 'DAdi 'DAdi

 

ANSWERS ACTIVITY 2

1

Listen to the music.

E

'DAdi di di 'DAdi

2

She’s a happy person.

J

di di 'DAdi 'DAdi

3

Talk to him today.

H

'DA di 'DAdi 'DA

4

Answer the phone.

A

'DAdi di 'DA

5

I’d like to describe my trip.

F

di 'DA di di 'DA di 'DA

6

I enjoy tennis.

I

di di 'DA 'DAdi

7

He’s my best friend.

D

di di 'DA 'DA

8

Please respond.

G

'DA di 'DA

9

Stand still.

C

'DA 'DA

10

Have a nice day.

B

'DA di 'DA 'DA

 


c) Transcript

Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

Intonation is a feature of pronunciation, one of the assessment criteria in the IELTS Speaking Test. You will need to use appropriate intonation in the test. You also need to understand the intonation used by the interviewer.

Intonation is important in spoken English because it conveys meaning in many ways. Changing the pitch in your voice - making it higher or lower - allows you to show surprise "Oh, really!" or boredom "Oh, really".

Let's listen to some intonation patterns used for specific functions.

First there's the high or rising tone, used for asking a yes/no question:

Do you find English difficult?

Are you listening?

Is this clear?

The rising tone is also used for showing expectation as you can hear when this furniture maker talks about seeing the inside of some rare timber:

And I go down and it is really a fascinating day when I actually see a log being put on the head rig and that first cut and I can't wait to have a look at that grain that's actually opened up after a tree has been growing for 300 or 400 years.

And it's used for showing interest and excitement.

That's awesome. Absolutely awesome.

A low or falling tone is used for making a statement as does this art gallery director:

The Art Gallery of South Australia commenced the joint program in art history with the University of Adelaide in 2001.

Questions with who, what, when, why and how also use this low or falling tone:

Who are you looking for?

What is that you're reading?

Where is the art gallery?

Why are you learning English?

How are you?

Listen to the rising and falling tones used by the woman in the next clip to explain the properties of granular materials:

Take vacuum packed coffee for example. This is very much solid like behaviour because it's stiff, stiff as a brick and at the same time it's strong enough to hold your weight. And yet, if we open the pack, I can pour it just like I would pour water …

When listing things a rise-falling tone is used:

Granular materials constitute a wide range of everyday common materials, such as powders through to natural grains such as nuts, rice, wheat grains and mineral resources.

A level tone or a low rising tone can also be used for listing:

We have 3 studio cabins, 2 two bedroom cabins, 2 tepees and a campground.

Finally, a fall-rising tone expresses uncertainty:

Well, I'm not sure what all this means

Now we'll look at some sample IELTS interviews. Listen carefully for the intonation patterns.

Where else have you travelled?

I've travelled to other Asian countries such as Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore and of course I've travelled around in my own country.

Where would you most like to go?

I would like very much to go to Europe, for example UK, Spain or Netherlands, but I also want to go to Dubai and India.

The two questions the interviewer asks are 'wh-' type questions starting with 'where'.

Did you notice that the pitch of his voice fell at the end of both questions? Like this:

Where else have you travelled?

Where would you most like to go?

In the answer, notice how the countries are listed using a level tone that then falls for the last item in the list 'in my own country'.

I've travelled to other Asian countries such as Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore and of course I've travelled around in my own country.


In response to the second question her voice rises to show expectation. She then lists the countries with her voice pitch rising until she ends with a level voice for Dubai. She uses a rising intonation to express the afterthought India. Listen:

I would like very much to go to Europe, for example UK, Spain or Netherlands, but I also want to go to Dubai and India.

Now listen for whether the voices rise and fall in this part of the test:

Could you live without your favourite thing?

No, I cannot live without my mobile phone. I have to bring it everywhere because I will feel lost if I don't have it near me.

Do people have too many possessions?

Yes, I think they do. They tend to buy a lot of things that they don't really need at that time.

The two questions the interviewer asks are yes/no type questions. Rising intonation patterns are used for these questions. Did you notice the pitch of his voice rise at the end of the questions? Like this:

Could you live without your favourite thing?

Do people have too many possessions?

In response to the first question, the answer is definite and this certainty is expressed with a flat or level tone:

No, I cannot live without my mobile phone.

But in response to the second question about whether people have too many possessions, she isn't quite sure and responds with:

Yes, I think they do.

She uses a fall-rising tone appropriately to indicate that she doesn't really know or is unsure.

Yes, I think they do.

You are allowed to ask the interviewer what something means in the discussion part or Part 3 of the Speaking Test. It's called asking for clarification. Let's say you didn't know what was meant by 'valued possessions'. You could say:

What do you mean by 'valued possessions'?

This is a 'wh' question, so it needs a falling tone. Listen again:

What do you mean by 'valued possessions'?

A different intonation is required for the next way of asking for clarification:

Do you mean important things that I own?

It's a yes/no question with a rising tone. Listen:

Do you mean important things that I own?

The final example is a statement, so a falling tone is used:

Sorry, I'm not quire sure what you mean by 'valued possessions'.

So a falling tone is used for 'wh-' and 'how' questions:

Who are you looking for?

What is that you're reading?

Where is the art gallery?

Why are you learning English?

How are you?

But a rising tone is used for yes/no questions:

Do you find English difficult?

Are you listening?

Is this clear?

That's all for now. To find more information about the intonation patterns in English, visit our Study English website. The address is: australianetwork.com/studyenglish.

Good Luck with your studies. Bye for now.

 

(Nguồn UTS: Insearch and Australia Network)

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Đọc tiếp

Phần 11: Ngữ pháp trong bài thi Nói

Được viết bởi Set Education. Đăng ngày 20/04/2010. Đăng trong Free IELTS Online. Lượt xem : 10585

Biết cách sử dụng cấu trúc câu so sánh chính xác là một trong những yêu cầu về ngữ pháp mà bạn sẽ được người chấm thi cho điểm trong phần thi Nói.

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1) Clip 1: Grammatical Range in the Speaking Test

2) Clip 2: Vocabulary Exercise

3) Printable Documents

a) Notes for Study

IELTS Tip

Practise using word forms which have dependent prepositions.

These structures can be problematic so it is best to memorise their uses and meanings.

Memorising them can also help reduce the number of errors that frequently occur in these kinds of structures.

GRAMMATICAL RANGE IN THE SPEAKING TEST

In the Speaking Test you will be required to use a range of grammatical structures. You will be tested on how accurate your use of these structures is. There are some grammatical patterns in English which can be problematic. This is particularly true of word forms which have dependent prepositions. Reviewing the patterns and practising the particular use of prepositions in the various combinations can help avoid errors.

There are many verbs, adjectives and nouns which are used with particular prepositions. The choice of preposition is often dependent on the word that precedes it. Because there are no strict rules that tell you which preposition to use, it is best to memorise the most common usage.

Dependent preposition patterns

There are three main patterns:

• verb + preposition

• noun + preposition

• adjective/participle + preposition

Verb + preposition

Here is a list of common verbs and the prepositions that follow.

Verb

Preposition

complain, know, learn, talk, think, write

about

Example: You will need to write about the effects of global warming.

account, apologise, apply, hope, look, pay, prepare, wait, watch, wish

for

Example: Watch for the huge bulletin board then turn right.

consist, take care, think

of

Example: The process consists of three stages: preparing, baking and decorating.

agree, count, depend, rely

on

Example: I know I can always depend on your support.

apologise, belong, complain, speak, talk, write

to

Example: I will speak to the guidance counsellor.

agree, be, comply, deal, go out, stay

with

Example: I always go out with my friends on Friday nights.

 

There are some verbs that are followed by a direct object first and then the preposition.

verb + direct object + preposition + indirect object

Example:    She blamed the technician for not fixing the computer.

(= blame someone for something)

John blamed the inferior workmanship on the plumber.

(= blame something on someone)

The following verbs can also follow this pattern.

advise someone against something

help someone with something

advise someone of something

make something for someone

ask someone for something

persuade someone of something

blame someone for something

praise someone for something

blame something on someone

present someone with something

borrow something from someone

present something to someone

congratulate someone on something

provide someone with something

convince someone of something

provide something for someone

criticise someone for something

supply someone with something

describe something to someone

supply something for/to someone

discuss something with someone

thank someone for something

divide something into something

warn someone about/against something

explain something to someone

welcome someone to something

 

Examples:

The travel agent advised her against travelling to the jungle.

The travel agent advised her of the dangers in the jungle.

They borrowed the materials from Sam.

I’d like to discuss the new program with you today, if possible.

It will be necessary to provide the students with some stationary.

It will be necessary to provide some stationery for the students.

Please thank Liz for her kindness.

 


Noun + preposition

Here is a list of nouns with the prepositions that normally follow.

Noun

Preposition

anger, anxiety, excitement, information, question, worry

about

Example: I received the information about the changes to the bus schedules yesterday.

insurance, safeguard

against

Example: It is compulsory to get insurance against theft.

difference

between

Example: The difference between the two portfolios is not that great.

apology, application, cheque/check, demand, excuse, explanation, ideas, need, reason, request, responsibility, taste

for

Example: I put in my application for a visa to China over a week ago.

advantage, belief, change, decrease, delay, difficulty, drop, experience, fall, increase, interest, problem, purpose, rise, success

in

Example: The delay in fixing the road caused problems for commuters in the morning peak.

advantage, awareness, benefit, cause, decrease, effect, example, experience, fall, hope, idea, impact, increase, knowledge, lack, matter, opinion, possibility, problem, proof, purpose, rise, way

of

Example: You will need proof of identity at the airport.

advice, effect, impact

on

Example: His advice on travelling in the desert was appreciated.

alternative, answer, damage, invitation, objection, reply, solution

to

Example: There was no answer to my previous email.

experience, relationship, satisfaction, trouble

with

Example: Jane ended her relationship with Peter.

 

Adjective/participles + preposition

Here is a list of some of the more common adjectives with the prepositions that normally follow.

Adjective/participle

Preposition

annoyed, concerned, doubtful, enthusiastic, excited, pleased, serious, sorry, upset, worried

about

Example: Alice was so excited about getting her new car.

amazed, annoyed, awful, bad, clever, good, shocked, skilled, terrible

at

Example: I was shocked at the news of the car accident.

amazed, concerned, excited, impressed, made, shocked

by

Example: We were impressed by her dancing skills.

available, bad, concerned, eager, famous, good, responsible, suitable

for

Example: The restaurant is famous for its chocolate cake.

made

from

Example: The basket is made from grass.

deficient, disappointed, engaged, interested, lacking, rich, successful

in

Example: James was successful in winning the snowboarding championship.

afraid, aware, capable, characteristic, confident, fond, frightened, guilty, hopeful, jealous, made, proud, scared, short, suspicious, tired

of

Example: Susan is very fond of chocolates.

addicted, attached, available, bad, close, compared, contrary, different, engaged, good, grateful, harmful, kind, mean, nice, opposed, polite, related, rude, similar, subject

to

Example: Previous exam papers were made available to students.

annoyed, bored, compared, concerned, crowded, disappointed, impressed, pleased, popular, satisfied

with

Example: Surprisingly, the children were bored with the new computer game.

  


b) Learning Activities

Practise and consolidate your learning about grammatical range by completing our activities. The answers for all activities are on the last page.

ACTIVITY 1

Complete the sentences with an appropriate preposition.

1. Who is the person responsible _____ registering candidates for the test?

2. The children were excited ______ the excursion to the mountains.

3. When asked about the accident he said he had no knowledge _____ it.

4. The trainees were inspired _____ his performance.

5. The Senator is responsible _____ the Parliament.

6. John is interested _____ pursuing a career in journalism.

7. They couldn’t agree ____ the gift.

8. It is best to complain _____ the officer in charge.

9. There is a significant difference ______ the products of the two companies.

10. I always was bad _____ maths.

 

ACTIVITY 2

Complete the sentences in the left-hand column with a suitable ending from the righthand column.

1

Residents will need to safeguard themselves

A

on her promotion.

2

The question asks for a solution

B

by the barking dog.

3

In this part of the business course they’ll learn

C

in the unemployment rates.

4

Be sure to congratulate Mary

D

with the younger crowd.

5

Jack doesn’t seem capable

E

about marketing strategies.

6

The neighbours were annoyed

F

to the youngest person in year 12.

7

There was an unexpected rise

G

of their daughter’s achievements.

8

Horror films are always popular

H

against dangers in the home.

9

The parents were proud

I

of doing the work properly.

10

The award was presented by the principal

J

to the problem.

 

ACTIVITY 1 ANSWERS

1.         for

2.         about

3.         of

4.         by

5.         to

6.         in

7.         on

8.         to

9.         between

10.       at

 

ACTIVITY 2 ANSWERS

1. H Residents will need to safeguard themselves against dangers in the home.

2. J The question asks for a solution to the problem.

3. E In this part of the business course they'll learn about marketing strategies.

4. A Be sure to congratulate Mary on her promotion.

5. I Jack doesn’t seem capable of doing the work properly.

6. B The neighbours were annoyed by the barking dog.

7. C There was an unexpected rise in the unemployment rates.

8. D Horror films are always popular with the younger crowd.

9. G The parents were proud of their daughter's achievements.

10. F The award was presented by the principal to the youngest person in year 12.


c) Transcript

Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

Knowing how to compare and contrast is something you are likely to need for the IELTS Speaking Test.

There are a number of grammatical structures that you can use to make comparisons and express differences.

Listen to this candidate comparing and contrasting his teachers:

What differences in teaching styles have you experienced with different teachers?

Well, I think, you have to make a difference between a teacher's knowledge and personal style. Some teachers, you know, are very knowledgeable and have a lot of experience and everything. Both my history and science teachers knew their subjects really well, but my maths teacher, who was much older - maybe that's why – just didn't have the skills to convey all that to the students. If I were to compare all my classes, I would say his were the most boring. My history teacher, on the other hand, he knew how to communicate to students and his lessons were more enjoyable and we learnt faster.

He said that "both my history and science teachers knew their subjects."

He uses the word 'both' to say 'the two together'. They're similar in the way they know a lot about their subjects. He then contrasts them to the maths teacher by using the word 'but'. Listen:

Both my history and science teachers knew their subjects really well, but my maths teacher, who was much older - maybe that's why - just didn't have the skills to convey all that to the students.

To justify the contrast he compares the ages of the teachers. The maths teacher is much older. Older is a comparative adjective. Someone who is 50 is older than someone who is 40. 'Much older' is a way of saying the difference is larger – someone who is 80 is much older than someone who is 40.

He also compares the teaching styles of his teachers:

If I were to compare all my classes, I would say his were the most boring.

This time he uses the superlative - the most boring, because he is comparing more than 2 things. He does this using a conditional 'if' sentence which is a polite way of criticising someone:

If I were to compare all my classes, I would say his were the most boring.

He goes on to talk about his history teacher. How does he show that he is comparing him to the boring maths teacher?

My history teacher, on the other hand, he knew how to communicate to students and his lessons were more enjoyable and we learnt faster.

He says 'on the other hand' to show that he is now talking about a different style of teaching. And again he uses comparative forms - more enjoyable and faster – to express this difference.

Now listen to another candidate responding to a question designed to encourage her to compare and contrast:

Is it better to grow up in the city or in the countryside?

Well, I think that, mm, both places have their pros and cons. I've grown up in a city, and I've lived in a city all my life. And sometimes when I see those families who have their kids in the countryside I envy them, because they can run about, you know. They are free and the environment is cleaner and safer, but then, on the other hand, you know, living in a city gives you other, um, opportunities to socialise, have more contact with culture, and better opportunities for education. So, I don't know. It's difficult to say. Both things have advantages and disadvantages.

She begins by saying that "both places have their pros and cons". Saying 'both' means she is referring to the city and the country. Pros and cons is an idiom meaning advantages and disadvantages. Then she establishes that her point of view is that of a city person:

I've grown up in a city, and I've lived in a city all my life.

Then she says what the advantages - the pros - of living in the country are:

Sometimes when I see those families who have their kids in the countryside I envy them, because they can run about, you know. They are free and the environment is cleaner and safer …

The advantages are that in the country you can run about and be free. She also uses the comparative adjectives 'cleaner' and 'safer' to describe the country compared to the city.

Often you use comparatives with 'than' a word that means 'in comparison with'.

The country is cleaner than the city.

She chooses to contrast with the word 'but' and talk about the advantages of living in the city:

They are free and the environment is cleaner and safer, but then, on the other hand, you know, living in a city gives you other, um, opportunities to socialise, have more contact with culture, and better opportunities for education.

Like the previous candidate, she uses the phrase 'on the other hand' to show she is talking about something different - the city.

And again she uses the language of comparison, this time the irregular comparative form of good, 'better'.

Listen again:

They are free and the environment is cleaner and safer, but then, on the other hand, you know, living in a city gives you other, um, opportunities to socialise, have more contact with culture, and better opportunities for education.

Now let's listen to the way she rounds off her comparison of city and country living:

So, I don't know. It's difficult to say. Both things have advantages and disadvantages.

She ends by saying both have advantages and disadvantages which means that one isn't better than the other. You don't have to say that one thing is better than another if you don't think so. The phrase for this is 'as good as'. She thinks that the country is as good as the city.

The structures you use to compare things in the speaking test are assessed as grammatical range and accuracy, one of the IELTS marking criteria. Other things that are assessed in this area are the number of mistakes you make and the range of sentence types you use.

Don't be overly concerned about being perfectly correct all the time. Some mistakes will occur in your speech.

It's good to review the rules for forming comparatives.

One syllable words have the –er comparative form: big, bigger

You need to memorise the forms for 2 syllable words because they can be either –er or have 'more' before them:            

narrow, narrower

useful, more useful

Words of 3 syllables and longer have the 'more' form:

intelligent, more intelligent

spectacular, more spectacular

You can emphasise the degree of difference and say 'much older'.

With 'more intelligent', you say 'much more intelligent' and with 'more spectacular', you say 'much more spectacular'.

And don't forget to review irregular comparative adjectives like:

good, better

bad, worse

far, further or farther

Whenever a question has a comparative adjective in it, you can be confident that you are expected to reply with the language of comparison.

That's all for now. To find more information about grammatical range and accuracy in the Speaking Test visit our Study English website. The address is: australianetwork.com/studyenglish.

Good Luck with your studies. Bye.

 

(Nguồn UTS: Insearch and Australia Network)

{/rokaccess}

Đọc tiếp

Phần 10: Vốn từ vựng trong bài thi Nói

Được viết bởi Set Education. Đăng ngày 19/04/2010. Đăng trong Free IELTS Online. Lượt xem : 18853

Bài học này sẽ hướng dẫn bạn cách sử dụng vốn từ vựng của mình một cách hiệu quả nhất cũng như làm sao để thể hiện khả năng áp dụng những chức năng ngôn ngữ trong IELTS Speaking Test.

{rokaccess guest} Đăng ký thành viên để xem nội dung chi tiết {/rokaccess} {rokaccess !guest}

1) Clip 1: Vocabulary for Speaking 

2) Clip 2: Vocabulary Exercise

3) Printable Documents

a) Notes for Study

IELTS Tip

Build your vocabulary around topic areas such as health, the environment, media, society, technology, education and others.

Demonstrate your range of topic vocabulary by using a variety of word forms, synonyms and opposites.

Don’t forget to include collocations and less common words and expressions, such as idioms.

VOCABULARY FOR SPEAKING

Having a wide range of vocabulary at your finger tips and being able to use it accurately and appropriately allow you to communicate freely, spontaneously, effectively and fluently.

When building your vocabulary it is not only important to organise it in a meaningful way according to topics but also to look at how the words are used. There is more to a word than just its meaning.

There are different component parts of a word. Using a wide range and having a command of word forms are what is referred to as your lexical resource, one of the criteria by which your speech is assessed.

It is important to know and learn the different ways words are used.

When setting up a vocabulary notebook for yourself you should include the following aspects of a word.

• word forms and stress

• word associations

• collocations

• register

• idioms and fixed expressions

Word forms and stress

Words function differently when they are used as adjectives, nouns, verbs or adverbs.

Knowing the various forms gives you flexibility in the way you can express yourself.

Be careful though the stress may change when using a different word form.

Some examples are on the following page:

adjective

noun

verb

adverb

thing

person

environ'mental

en'vironment

environ'mentalist

 

environ'mentally

in'dustrial

in'dustrialised/

in'dustrialized

in'dustrious

'industry

industriali'sation

in'dustrialist

in'dustrialise/

in'dustrialize

in'dustrially

tra'ditional

tra'dition

tra'ditionalist

 

tra'ditionally

cre'ative

cre'ation

crea'tivity

cre'ator

cre'ate

cre'atively

long

'lengthy

 

length

'lengthen

'lengthwise

de'cided

de'cisive

de'cision

 

de'cide

de'cidedly

de'cisively

'peaceful

'peaceable

peace

'peacemaker

'pacify

'peacefully

  

Word associations

Knowing the way words are associated with each other helps to learn the meaning of words more easily and provides the opportunity when demonstrating your speaking ability to use a wider range of vocabulary. Using synonyms, opposites and other related words allows you to extend your talk or response with more detail and express yourself more eloquently.

There are various ways that words are related. Some of the more common relationships include:

• synonyms

• opposites

• hyponyms

Synonyms

These are words that have the same meaning, or are similar in meaning. Be careful that some words, even though they may be similar or slightly different in meaning, may be more appropriate in one particular context than in another. Grammar can also make a difference in the choice you make.

It is important to take these aspects into account when building your vocabulary notebook and include a reference to the meaning to which the group of synonyms belongs.

On the following page are some groups of synonyms for the word advance used as noun and verb, including a reference to the intended meaning.

advance

noun

synonyms

bringing progress

development, improvement, growth, headway

verb

 

move forward

proceed, move on, progress, make headway

benefit

promote, benefit, assist

time

bring forward

 

Opposites

These are words that are opposite in meaning. Similarly, as with synonyms it is important to be aware that appropriate use depends on context and grammar. Here are some groups of opposites for advance.

advance

noun

 

making progress

decline, deterioration

verb

 

move forward

withdraw, retreat

benefit

hold back, delay

time

move back

 


Hyponymy

This describes the relationship between types of something, for example colours or weather.

Colours

black

jet black, charcoal

brown

chocolate, mahogany, khaki, tan, taupe

blue

indigo, navy blue, sky blue, royal blue

green

aquamarine, emerald, jade, turquoise, teal

red

ruby, scarlet, cherry, crimson, burgundy

yellow

canary yellow, gold, cream, lemon yellow

white

off-white, snow-white

 

Weather

rain

drizzle, downpour, deluge, shower, hail, torrential

storm

thunder, lightning, electrical storm, tropical storm

sun and warm

sunny, Indian summer, balmy, scorcher

snow and ice

blizzard, frost, slush, snowstorm, snowdrift, hoar frost, snowfall

wind

breeze, gale, cyclone, trade winds, typhoon

 

Collocations

Collocation refers to the way words combine together. Using word combinations appropriately and accurately is important because it will make your speech sound more natural and native-like. For example, in English you can say Happy Birthday and Merry Christmas but it is incorrect to Merry Birthday.

Here are some of the kinds of combination and examples using the noun peace and verb explain.

Type

Example

peace – noun

adjective + noun

lasting peace, world peace, inner peace

noun + noun

peace movement, peace agreement, peace talks

noun + verb

peace prevails

preposition + noun

at peace (with); in peace

verb + noun

bring about peace, make peace (with)

fixed expressions

peace and quiet, peace and tranquillity, piece of mind, rest in peace

explain – verb

verb + adverb

explain clearly, explain satisfactorily

verb + verb

be able to explain, try to explain

verb + preposition

explain about, explain to

phrase

explain away, explain everything

 

Register

Register refers to the use of formal and informal language. In the interview you will be required to speak on a variety of different topics that range from the general and personal to the more abstract, and to use both formal and informal language appropriately. While slang is considered a form of very informal language it is inappropriate to use it in the speaking test.

There are scales of formality. Here are some examples of formal and informal word choices:

less formal          ←                                                                         neutral                                               →        more formal

mum/mom and dad, the old folks

mother and father

parents

kids

children

offspring

bike

 

bicycle

advert, ad

 

advertisement

uni

 

university

place

home, house

dwelling

paper, daily rag

 

newspaper

mate

 

friend

to be sorry

 

to regret

to buy

 

to purchase

to be mad, cranky

to be angry

to be annoyed

to find out*

 

to learn

to get rid of*

 

to dispose of

to get into* (uni)

 

to be accepted into

to put up with* (something)

 

to tolerate something

to fight

to argue

to contest

to quit

 

to resign

to recap

 

to recapitulate

to swap

 

to exchange

* Phrasal verbs are less formal

Idioms and fixed expressions

An idiom is a phrase or fixed expression whose meaning is not clear or obvious from the meanings of the words that form the expression. For example, the expression to start the ball rolling is an idiom which means “to get some activity started”. It’s not immediately obvious what is meant by the expression but the context will usually shed some light on the meaning.

Here are some common idiomatic expressions:

Idiom

Meaning

from A to Z

knowing everything there is to know about something

Example: He knew the history of his country from A to Z.

all eyes

everybody is looking at someone in particular

Example: All eyes were on John to be sure he did the right thing.

up in arms

to protest angrily

Example: Ticket holders were up in arms when the last concert was cancelled.

in black and white

to have something in writing

Example: I’d like to see that agreement in black and white.

break the ice

to remove the shyness in people

Example: Wait till Jill arrives. She’ll break the ice with her jokes.

blow your own trumpet

to talk about or praise yourself

Example: Didn’t I warn you John would be blowing his own horn at the party.

go Dutch

to pay for oneself, usually at a restaurant

Example: I’ll go out with you only on the condition that we go Dutch.

a golden opportunity

an excellent opportunity

Example: Getting that posting overseas is a golden opportunity to see Europe.

in a nutshell

to sum something up

Example: Well, in a nutshell, that’s what I’ll be doing next year.

play it by ear

to deal with a situation as it develops

Example: I don’t know what kind of mood she’ll be in, so let’s wait and play it by ear.

 


b) Learning Activities

Practise and consolidate your learning about vocabulary by completing our activities.

The answers for all activities are on the last page.

ACTIVITY 1

Choose the appropriate idiomatic expression from the box for each sentence.

A

rule of thumb

F

face the music

B

piece of cake

G

start from scratch

C

in the long run

H

part and parcel

D

on cloud nine

I

drop the subject

E

in leaps and bounds

J

on second thoughts

 

1. Having to do the night shift is ________ of being a nurse.

2. Your diligence will pay off _______ when you succeed.

3. Let’s do the shopping tomorrow! No, _______ let’s get it out of the way now.

4. As a ______ students are allowed a 10 minute break every hour.

5. Be prepared to _____ when they find out you damaged the lock.

6. Let’s just _____ before we start arguing.

7. John has progressed _______ since his last report.

8. Because the computer crashed we lost the whole assignment and had to _____.

9. She was _____ when the results came in yesterday.

10. I’ve done the research so this assignment will be a _______.

ACTIVITY 2

Match each of the musical instruments in the box below with the types of instrument in the left-hand column.

bongos, saxophone, cello, guitar, harp, didgeridoo, banjo, balalaika, piano, xylophone, flute, concertina, clarinet, triangle, bass drum, organ, zither, castanets, steel drum, accordion, horn, cymbal, maracas, bells, trumpet, sitar, harpsichord, oboe, synthesiser, piccolo, mandolin, violin, trombone

 

Types of instrument

Musical instrument

strings

 

wind

 

keyboard

 

percussion

 

 


ACTIVITY 1 ANSWERS

1.         H         part and parcel

2.         C         in the long run

3.         J           on second thoughts

4.         A         rule of thumb

5.         F          face the music

6.         I           drop the subject

7.         E          in leaps and bounds

8.         G         start from scratch

9.         D         on cloud nine

10.       B         piece of cake

 

ACTIVITY 2 ANSWERS

Types of instrument

Musical instrument

strings

violin, cello, guitar, harp, sitar, mandolin, banjo, balalaika, zither

wind

saxophone, flute, clarinet, oboe, horn, trumpet, didgeridoo, piccolo, trombone

keyboard

piano, accordion, concertina, harpsichord, organ, synthesiser

percussion

bass drum, bells, castanets, xylophone, triangle, maracas, steel drum, cymbal, bongos

 


c) Transcript

Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

Today we'll look at how to make best use of your vocabulary and get your meaning across in the IELTS Speaking Test.

Knowing how to use your vocabulary in different ways can help you maintain conversation.

When you find that you can't think of the right word, you can talk around the idea as this candidate does here:

Do you think the children of famous people have it easy?

No, I don't think so. It must be very, very hard. You know, when I lived in Ecuador, I knew a lot of famous people and they always have to have bodyguards, or they have to live behind bars, you know, behind big walls, and children are always protected, and they don't have the freedom, so it's a big price you pay.

You can picture the surroundings from her description even though she has not named it.

She said 'have to have bodyguards' 'live behind bars' 'behind big walls' 'children are always protected'… and 'they don't have the freedom'.

She paints a clear picture of what she means: 'live behind bars' - we imagine someone in jail; 'bodyguards' - employing someone to protect you and your children.

The vocabulary used in her description accurately, effectively and successfully describes a 'gated community'.

The ability to use your vocabulary to describe something you don't have the exact word for is called circumlocution. Circumlocution means 'talking around something' and is assessed as a vocabulary skill.

During the interview the examiner may use a word that you don't know the meaning of. Let's imagine the topic of computers in education comes up in the interview. The interviewer takes the opportunity to explore this area and says:

Computer technology plays a big role in children's education today. Do you think the benefits of using computers are overrated?

Let's say you don't understand the word overrated. You can ask the interviewer what that word means, like this:

Computer technology plays a big role in children's education today. Do you think the benefits of using computers are overrated?

What do you mean by overrated?

I mean that the benefits are regarded too highly. They're exaggerated.

This is called asking for clarification. Apart from helping you answer, it shows the interviewer an aspect of your speaking ability. There are several ways of asking for clarification. You could say:

Sorry, I'm not quite sure what you mean by 'overrated'.

Or

Would you mind explaining what 'overrated' means?

All these examples ask for clarification appropriately. They range from the least formal what do you mean by …? to the most formal would you mind explaining …?

It would be inappropriate in such a formal interview to just say:

What's overrated?

It would, however, be more to your advantage if you tried to guess the meaning of overrated and then checked with the interviewer whether your understanding is correct.

Let's try doing this.

You know from your own experience that the use of computers for education can be good and bad. The question asks about benefits. Benefits are good things but are they overrated? Is there any part of the word you recognise?

It starts with 'over', a prefix you might know. You hear of overpopulation and people being overweight. That's too many people … and too fat. So 'over' probably means 'too much'. And it's not a good thing.

So you can check with the interviewer to see if you've understood by rephrasing the question like this:

Computer technology plays a big role in children's education today. Do you think the benefits of using computers are overrated?

Are you saying that the benefits of computer use might not be that good?

Yes, that's right.

Asking a question like this shows that you can use your vocabulary skilfully.

The questions in the Speaking Test interview are designed to encourage answers that show you can use a range of language functions.

The interviewer wants to see if you can express an opinion, or speculate or give a suggestion.

It's a good idea to vary the ways you respond.

Take the question: Do you think there is too much violence in films today?

It's inviting you to express an opinion, like this:

As far as I'm concerned there is too much violence in films these days.

But there are other ways of expressing an opinion. Listen:

In my opinion there is too much violence in films these days.

From my point of view there is too much violence in films these days.

It seems to me that there is too much violence in films these days.

Well, I would say there is too much violence in films these days.


The same applies to speculating. Speculating means making suggestions, where you don't necessarily know the right answer.

Here are some phrases you can use to speculate:

Why do teenagers vandalise public transport?

If I had to guess I'd say that it's boredom

I'm not sure but from my observation it's boredom

I imagine that the most important reason would be boredom

And here are some ways to give suggestions:

What would you do to improve public transport?

I think what should be done is increase services

The problem could be solved by increasing services

What might be done is increasing services

Another strategy is to use synonyms or words that have similar meanings.

Listen to this candidate doing this:

Why have the forms of popular entertainment changed over the years?

Because the society has changed a lot, and now we seem to be rushing all the time and want to consume everything a lot faster, so I think every form of entertainment is also reflecting that kind of very fast, quick way of wanting something different and wanting something very quickly.

He uses a number of synonyms to talk about how society has changed - he feels there is a need for things to be done in a hurry.

He uses the synonyms: rushing, fast and quick. He uses different word forms: the adjective fast and its comparative faster, the adjective quick and the adverb quickly.

By using a variety of synonyms and different word forms he is managing communication well and maintaining fluency.

Listen again:

Because the society has changed a lot, and now we seem to be rushing all the time and want to consume everything a lot faster, so I think every form of entertainment is also reflecting that kind of very fast, quick way of wanting something different and wanting something very quickly.

One way to build up your vocabulary is to organise words around categories such as movement. You can arrange words like this:

Some synonyms are fast and quick.

A collocation, or group of words often used together is 'rushing all the time'

Word forms would be faster and quickly.

Some opposites would be slow and sluggish.

An idiom could be 'in the fast lane', which means living an exciting if sometimes risky life.

Keep adding to this and then using the words you've discovered.

That's all for now.

To find more information about the vocabulary you need for the Speaking Test visit our Study English website. The address is: australianetwork.com/studyenglish.

Good Luck with your studies. Bye for now.

 

(Nguồn UTS: Insearch and Australia Network)

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Đọc tiếp

Phần 9: Nói mạch lạc

Được viết bởi Set Education. Đăng ngày 15/04/2010. Đăng trong Free IELTS Online. Lượt xem : 15335

Chúng ta sẽ tìm hiểu những cách thức diễn đạt trong tiếng Anh để tăng cường sự mạch lạc trong diễn đạt của bạn ở bài thi Nói. Phần ba của IELTS Speaking Test sẽ đánh giá khả năng của bạn khi phải thảo thuận sâu về một đề tài.

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1) Clip 1: Speaking Coherently

2) Clip 2: Vocabulary Exercise

3) Printable Documents

a) Notes for Study

IELTS Tip

Remember to organise your answer logically and link your ideas using a range of language devices, including transition words and expressions, referents, appropriate verb tenses and time phrases, and conjunctions.

Responding to the bullet points in the order they occur on the topic card will help ensure your  answer is organised.

SPEAKING COHERENTLY

Speaking coherently means organising your  answer in a clear and logical manner, and linking your ideas logically. To achieve coherence it is important to be aware of and put into practise the use of the following language devices:

• transition words and phrases

• reference words

• appropriate verb tenses and time phrases

• conjunctions for linking ideas

These language features also help with fluency, the other criterion used to assess your communication skills.

In this episode a variety of language functions, such as identifying, speculating, comparing, contrasting and others are used to develop a coherent answer in the twoway discussion in Part 3. Coherence is also important in Part 2 of the Speaking Test because you will be speaking on a given topic at length. This will require you to organise and order your response logically, using language appropriately.

Part 2 - Topic

Topics asking you to describe someone or something may occur in Part 2 of the Speaking Test. Here is such a topic in a sample prompt card.

Describe your favourite teacher.

You should say:

• who was the teacher

• what this teacher taught

• how long you had this teacher

And explain why you liked this teacher so much.

 

This is one candidate’s response:

My favourite teacher is Myoung Jin Park. He was my English teacher when I was in high school in Korea. You know, in Korea all the English teachers are basically Korean. He taught me for two years, in other words, in year eleven and year twelve. The girls of that age, you know, they normally like teachers, who are goodlooking, with the looks and with a good sense of humour but this teacher, specific teacher, was not physically attractive at all. He was rather, not terribly goodlooking, but I really adored this teacher because, I guess, to start with, I love studying languages, and he was teaching English, and I really loved learning English from him. He was very passionate about his job teaching and he was actually enjoying it. I could tell that he was enjoying it. He had good teaching skills. He encouraged and nearly coerced, you know, contributions from the students. Also, you could actually be quite sure, sitting in his class, that, er, when you gave an answer, no matter how silly it might sound, you’d never be laughed at or anything. So you felt quite free to have a conversation or discussion with the teacher, or other students in the class. And what was also, um, quite special about him was that he had a good sense of humour, so much so that you only remembered his jokes, when actually you had the test paper in front of you, looking at all the questions but you couldn’t remember the answers, only his jokes.

 

Language Devices

In answering this question the candidate used a wide range of language devices to give a coherent and cohesive response. How this candidate achieved this is examined below.

Structure

The candidate begins by identifying and stating the topic of her talk.

My favourite teacher is Myoung Jin Park.

This in fact is the topic sentence of her talk. To sequence her talk logically she follows the order of the bullets points which is: who, what, how long, why.

Bullet points

Response

who

My favourite teacher is Myoung Jin Park.

what

He was my English teacher when I was in high school in Korea. You know, in Korea all the English teachers are basically Korean.

how long

He taught me for two years, in other words, in year eleven and year twelve.

why

The girls of that age, you know, they normally like teachers, who are good-looking, with the looks and with a good sense of humour but this teacher, specific teacher, was not physically attractive at all. He was rather, not terribly good-looking, but I really adored this teacher because, I guess, to start with, I love studying languages, and he was teaching English, and I really loved learning English from him. He was very passionate about his job teaching and he was actually enjoying it. I could tell that he was enjoying it.

He had good teaching skills. He encouraged and nearly coerced, you know, contributions from the students. Also, you could actually be quite sure, sitting in his class, that, er, when you gave an answer, no matter how silly it might sound, you’d never be laughed at or anything. So you felt quite free to have a conversation or discussion with the teacher, or other students in the class. And what was also, um, quite special about him was that he had a good sense of humour, so much so that you only remembered his jokes, when actually you had the test paper in front of you, looking at all the questions but you couldn’t remember the answers, only his jokes.

 

Transition words and phrases

Transition words and phrases are used to further organise the response and link ideas between and within sentences. There was a number of transition signals used.

Transition signals

Connection

Example

in other words

clarify a point

He taught me for two years, in other words, in year eleven and year twelve.

to start with

sequence an idea

He was rather, not terribly good-looking, but I really adored this teacher because, I guess, to start with, I love studying languages, and he was teaching English, and I really loved learning English from him.

Also

add another idea

Also, you could actually be quite sure, sitting in his class, that, er, when you gave an answer, no matter how silly it might sound, you’d never be laughed at or anything.

no matter how silly it might sound

draw attention to a statement and presenting a possible response

so much so

result

And what was also, um, quite special about him was that he had a good sense of humour, so much so that you only remembered his jokes, when actually you had the test paper in front of you, looking at all the questions but you couldn’t remember the answers, only his jokes.

 

Here are some common transition words and phrases.

Type

Transition Words or Phrases

addition

in addition, furthermore, moreover, also

listing

first, first and foremost, firstly, second, secondly, the most important, the most obvious

similarity

similarly, in the same way, likewise

contrast

however, in contrast, on the other hand, on the contrary

example

for example, for instance, such as, like

result

therefore, as a result, consequently, hence, thus, accordingly

emphasis

indeed, in fact, above all

conclusion

in conclusion, to conclude, in summary, to summarise, in short, finally, in the end

 


Reference words

Reference words point back or refer to words or phrases in previous sentences and are used to connect the ideas. They replace the word or phrase used before and therefore need to agree in number and person.

Here are some referents which are commonly used.

Referents

Examples

pronouns

 

personal

it, she, his, them, their

possessive

his, their

demonstrative

this, that, these, those

relative

who, which, that

definite article

the

 

The candidate uses a variety of these referents to avoid repeating the same word or phrase and also to refer back to a particular point. They also allow her talk to flow smoothly. She uses them in the following places.

Referent

Example

he

My favourite teacher is Myoung Jin Park. He was my English teacher when I was in high school in Korea.

the

He was my English teacher when I was in high school in Korea. You know, in Korea all the English teachers are basically Korean.

that

He taught me for two years, in other words, in year eleven and year twelve. The girls of that age, you know, they normally like teachers, who are good-looking …

it

He was very passionate about his job teaching and he was actually enjoying it. I could tell that he was enjoying it.

 

Appropriate verb tenses

The candidate uses the appropriate verb tenses and time phrases when making time references in her talk.

Example:

He was my English teacher when I was in high school in Korea.

You know, in Korea all the English teachers are basically Korean.

He taught me for two years, in other words, in year eleven and year twelve.

When describing the past – her high school years – she correctly used the simple past tense: was and taught. In stating a fact that the English teachers in Korea are Korean, she switched to the simple present are.

Describing the situation about giving answers is a past event but it was an event in the future at the time, so she correctly uses the modals could and would to express that, i.e. gave is the simple past tense referring to the past.

Example:

Also, you could actually be quite sure, sitting in his class, that, er, when you gave an answer, no matter how silly it might sound, you’d never be laughed at or anything. So you felt quite free …

Conjunctions for linking ideas

Coordinating and subordinating conjunctions and other parts of speech link ideas within and between sentences. Using conjunctions correctly makes your talk clear and easy to understand.

Here are some conjunctions which are commonly used in English.

linking ideas

conjunctions

other parts of speech

coordinating

subordinating

equal ideas

and, both … and

 

another, as well as

alternative ideas

or, either … or

 

 

contrasting ideas

but, yet

although, even though, though, while

despite, in spite of

reasons

for, so

because, as, since

as a result of, because of, due to

condition

 

if, provided that

 

subordinating words

referring to humans

 

 

who, whom

referring to nonhumans and things

 

 

which, that

referring to a time or place

 

 

when, where

 

 The candidate uses various coordinating and subordinating conjunctions to link her ideas.

To contrast two qualities she uses the coordinating conjunction but.

He was rather, not terribly good-looking, but I really adored this teacher …

Not terribly good-looking is contrasted with adored.

To give a reason, the candidate forms a subordinating clause using because.

He was rather, not terribly good-looking, but I really adored this teacher because, I guess, to start with, I love studying languages …

The reason why she adored the teacher was the fact that she loved studying languages.

To add other equal ideas, she uses the coordinating conjunction and.

… I love studying languages, and he was teaching English, and I really loved learning English from him.

This is a compound sentence consisting of three independent clauses joined together.

I love studying languages. He was teaching English. I really loved learning English from him.

To give more information about physical features, she uses a relative pronoun who.

The girls of that age, you know, they normally like teachers, who are good-looking, with the looks and with a good sense of humour …

This is a relative clause and is used to make a complex sentence.

 


b) Learning Activities

Practise and consolidate your learning about the language devices used in coherent speech, by completing our activities. The answers for all activities are on the last page.

ACTIVITY 1

Complete the sentence with the appropriate conjunction from the box below.

so         but       where    yet    when   which     because        or         whom     and

 

1. I got a wonderful opportunity to go overseas to Italy ________ study music there.

2. I’d really like to work both as a teacher and music director _________ I finish my studies.

3. Life gets really hectic sometimes, _______ I like to go off on my own and meditate.

4. I’m hoping to get a job as an interior designer, ________ I can also use my painting skills.

5. I’d like to describe a movie _________ made a strong impression on me.

6. People know they need to exercise ________ they don’t do anything about it.

7. We are trying to televise some international films ________ haven’t had much success.

8. I enjoyed having to stay in the mountains _________ it brought back beautiful memories of my country.

9. The choice was paying the fine ________ losing my licence.

10. She was a famous lady, ________ I had the privilege of meeting after the concert.

 

ACTIVITY 2

Here is a sample response to an IELTS Speaking Test Part 2 question – Answering the topic: Describe someone you admire very much. In the table below, identify and write down the example of the coherent or cohesive device used in each of the numbered sentences.

Topic: Describe someone you admire very much?

1. The person who I really admire is a professor from my university days. Her name is Vera Santiago. 2. She is a very talented lady. 3. Vera is about fifty and married with three children but the reason I admire her is that she raised a family and, at the same time, taught in primary and secondary schools and then went on to teach at university. 4. I met her when I started uni. I was nineteen. 5. Vera had a passion for literature and she was able to pass this on to her students.

She taught us how to analyse a text and love literature. 6. That is something which is hard to do because when you’re at school you don’t really want to study literature. 7. You’re more interested in playing with your friends, but she was able to capture our imagination and keep us interested in all these stories. And she also enriched our lives with music and poetry. We listened and discussed. 8. I think it was important to have her as a teacher because she made us see the world in different ways. 9. We felt sometimes that literature and life are not that different, in fact, there are many similarities. 10. So from that point on we interpreted things differently.

 

No

Coherent and cohesive devices

Example

1

relative pronoun

 

2

referent

 

3

coordinating conjunction – contrasting ideas

 

4

4 subordinating word referring to time

 

5

referent

 

6

referent

 

7

coordinating conjunction – to express equal ideas

 

8

subordinating conjunction – to express a reason

 

9

transition signal used to emphasise a point which is the opposite of what was said earlier

 

10

linking word to express a result

 

 


ACTIVITY 1 ANSWERS

1. and

2. when

3. so

4. where

5. which

6. yet

7. but

8. because

9. or

10. whom

ACTIVITY 2 ANSWERS

No

Coherent and cohesive devices

Example

1

relative pronoun

The person who I really admire is a professor from my university days. Her name is Vera Santiago.

2

referent

She is a very talented lady.

3

coordinating conjunction – contrasting ideas

Vera is about fifty and married with three children but the reason I admire her is that she raised a family and, at the same time, taught in primary and secondary schools and then went on to teach at university.

4

4 subordinating word referring to time

I met her when I started uni.

5

referent

Vera had a passion for literature and she was able to pass this on to her students.

6

referent

She taught us how to analyse a text and love literature. That is something which is hard to do because when you’re at school you don’t really want to study literature.

7

coordinating conjunction – to express equal ideas

You’re more interested in playing with your friends, but she was able to capture our imagination and keep us interested in all these stories.

8

subordinating conjunction – to express a reason

I think it was important to have her as a teacher because she made us see the world in different ways.

9

transition signal used to emphasise a point which is the opposite of what was said earlier

We felt sometimes that literature and life are not that different, in fact, there are many similarities.

10

linking word to express a result

So from that point on we interpreted things differently.

 


c) Transcript

Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I’m Margot Politis.

Today we’ll look at some aspects of discussing a topic, which is something you are expected to do in Part 3 of the IELTS Speaking Test.

In Part 3 of the Speaking Test you participate in a two-way discussion to test your ability to discuss a topic in depth in a number of ways. These may include speculating, comparing and contrasting or identifying a trend.

The speaker in the next clip identifies a trend. What is the trend?

The fastest-growing area of identity fraud is in internet services, such as people breaking into Internet banking accounts, credit card fraud over the internet, people using fraudulent credit cards, fraudulent identities to, essentially, break into other people's accounts and, essentially, steal their money.

The trend he’s identified is the fastest-growing crime in the world, identity fraud.

If we listen further he explains why it’s a problem.

The traditional way to protect internet banking and other secure applications is through passwords and PIN numbers. And these are totally inadequate in an area where identity-related fraud is growing at such a high rate.

He tells us it’s a problem because the traditional ways to protect internet banking are inadequate.

But he has a solution. Let’s hear what it is.

What we've actually developed here is a technology that allows us to analyse a person's voice - a person that is actually sitting at their computer screen accessing a secure website. We're able to analyse their voice in order to confirm that they actually are who they say they are. [Voice Authentication Demo: Big bird – Congratulations you have been successfully verified].

His solution is to use technology which produces a voice signature.

He demonstrated three of the language functions which are used to assess your communication skills.

He identified the issue - that identity fraud is a problem and then explained why it’s a problem.

The third language function was providing a solution - he talked about what could be done to prevent identity fraud.

Now let’s listen to this woman responding to the question: What makes a person famous?

I think there are different ways to see what makes a person famous. One is the publicity and the marketing around a person, but I don’t think that’s a real, honest way to be famous. I think if I have to choose I’d rather be famous for being honest, for being kind and for trying to help and solve conflicts or problems in the world, instead of being on the cover of a magazine. So my characteristics for a, a famous person, I will go for honesty and kindness.

She shows that she understands the question by incorporating it into her response at the start. By repeating the question she is clarifying the topic.

I think there are different ways to see what makes a person famous.

The question is designed to see if you can identify. She identifies what she believes makes a person famous - publicity and marketing. She uses the listing word 'one' to make this clear and to logically link her first sentence with the next:

I think there are different ways to see what makes a person famous. One is the publicity and the marketing around a person …

Having identified what makes someone famous, she then shows that she doesn’t agree with this idea. The disagreement is expressed through the word 'but' and she logically continues by saying why she disagrees:

One is the publicity and the marketing around a person, but I don’t think that’s a real, honest way to be famous.

She develops and expands her ideas further by justifying her opinion. Advising her listener by using the conditional if - if I have to choose - she then expresses her preference by using a modal - I’d rather:

I think if I have to choose I’d rather be famous for being honest, for being kind and for trying to help and solve conflicts or problems in the world …

She contrasts her idea of what she believes a person should be famous for with the idea she suggested originally. She links these two ideas appropriately using instead of:

I’d rather be famous for being honest, for being kind and for trying to help and solve conflicts or problems in the world, instead of being on the cover of a magazine …

She rounds off her answer by summarising concisely her idea of what makes a person famous. She uses the conjunction - so to make this final statement:

So my characteristics for a, a famous person, I will go for honesty and kindness.

So she clarifies, identifies, disagrees, gives an opinion, advises, shows a preference, contrasts ideas and summarises.


In order to respond fully, appropriately and coherently, there are a number of skills you need.

You should be able to quickly recognise what the question is asking.

A do you think question such as: Do you think there is too much violence in films today? Needs a reply that gives your opinion.

A question such as: What makes a person famous? Requires you to identify.

Look at this question:

Why do children like eating fast food?

You may have an opinion about this, but before you give it, you might explain and give reasons why children eat fast food.

It’s very likely that you will be asked to compare things with a question such as:

What are the differences between urban and rural homes in your country?

Another thing the examiners are looking for is the ability to speculate or say what might happen with a question such as: What kind of transport will people use in the future?

Now let’s look at part of a professional discussion, a television interview with an expert on diet:

Do you think that some people put on weight more easily than others?

Oh, that's definitely the case. We do know that there are genetic differences in how easy it is for people to put on weight. That's not necessarily related only to their metabolism. It may also have to do with how much they are driven to eat. And so the degree of appetite control is better in some people than others. And it's got nothing to do with willpower - it's just the way people are wired.

She was asked for her opinion with the question: Do you think that some people put on weight more easily than others?

Being an expert, she gives it quickly and decisively: Oh, that's definitely the case.

She means that she completely agrees with the idea that some people put on weight more easily than others. She goes on to give the reasons why she believes that:

We do know that there are genetic differences in how easy it is for people to put on weight.

That’s the first reason - some people put on more weight from the same amount of food because they’re born that way - there are genetic differences. But there’s another reason. Listen to the way she develops this:

That's not necessarily related only to their metabolism. It may also have to do with how much they are driven to eat.

That’s not necessarily related only to their metabolism.

Metabolism is how your body responds to food.

The important words are ‘not necessarily related only to’

This means that metabolism is not the only reason people put on weight. Another reason may be how hungry people are - how much they are driven to eat.

Notice she introduces this idea with the word may - this means this time she’s not completely certain that this is the case. Listen again:

That's not necessarily related only to their metabolism. It may also have to do with how much they are driven to eat.

She concludes with a hypothetical example using 'if'.

So that if you put some people in a situation where there's a smorgasbord, some people will be able to control exactly how much they need to eat.

And some of them don't have an 'off' button.

And some people don't have an 'off' button.

That’s all for now.

To find more information about Part 3 of the Speaking Test visit our Study English website. The address is: australianetwork.com/studyenglish.

Good Luck with your studies. Bye for now.

 

(Nguồn UTS: Insearch and Australia Network)

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