Series 2 – Bài 20: Nói về chuyện quá khứ – thể giả định

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Bài 20: talking about the past – the 3rd conditional (nói về chuyện quá khứ - thể giả định)

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Part 1 - THE DIALOGUE (đối thoại)

Bà Ruth và bà Dorothy lại nói chuyện về ngày xưa.

RUTH:                    If I'd lived in Sydney, I'd have learnt to swim.

DOROTHY:            If I'd lived on a farm, I'd have owned a horse.

RUTH:                    If I'd stayed at school, I'd have gone to university.

                               • If I'd stayed at school, I might've gone to university.

DOROTHY:            I wouldn't have worked in Brown's Bakery.

RUTH:                    If I hadn't left school at fifteen, I'd have gone to university.

DOROTHY:           If I'd married, I'd have had lots of children.

                               • If I'd married, I might've had lots of children.

RUTH:                    I'd have been very happy if I'd had lots of children. I'm sure I would've.


Part 2 - VOCABULARY (từ vựng)

a farm           nông trại 

[ 'fam ]

to own          làm chủ, sở hữu 

[ 'oʊn ]


Part 3 – LESSON: talking about the past - the 3rd conditional (nói về chuyện quá khứ - thể giả định)

Khi nói về các tình huống không có thực ở trong quá khứ, chúng ta áp dụng câu điều kiện thứ ba. Thí dụ:

If I had lived in Sydney, I would have learnt to swim.          Giá như còn sống ở Sydney, tôi đã học bơi rồi.

Trong thí dụ vừa rồi động từ ở mệnh đề 'if' được chia ở thời quá khứ hoàn thành và động từ ở mệnh đề chính được chia ở thời hiện tại hoàn thành.


If I had lived on a farm, I would have owned a horse.         Giá như tôi sống ở trang trại, tôi đã có ngựa.

Trong thực tế chị ấy không sống ở trang trại nên đâu có ngựa.

Các mệnh đề ở câu điều kiện có thể hoán vị vị trí cho nhau được:

I would have owned a horse, if I had lived on a farm.        Giá như tôi sống ở trang trại, tôi đã có ngựa.

Câu điều kiện thứ ba ở dạng phủ định thường đề cập tới một thực tế là những hành động này thực sự đã xảy ra. Thí dụ:

If I had not left school at fifteen, I would have gone to university.

Giá như tôi không bỏ học lúc 15 tuổi tôi đã vào học đại học.

Trong thực tế, chị ấy đã bỏ học lúc 15 tuổi, bởi vậy chị ấy không học lên tới đại học. Cách nói này chỉ là một giả thiết.


Part 4 - PRONUNCIATION (phát âm)

Điểm chính của bài học này là tập trung vào câu điều kiện thứ ba câu giả định. Cách nói các giả định thật khó, vậy bạn hãy luyện nói các câu sau:

She would have had help.

[ ʃi 'wʊd hæv hæd hɛlp ]

She would've had help.

[ ʃi 'wʊd_əv hæd hɛlp ]

She would not have had help.

[ ʃi 'wʊd 'nɒt hæv hæd hɛlp ]

She wouldn't've had help.

[ ʃi 'wʊd_ənt_əv hæd hɛlp ]


Part 5 - PRACTICE (luyện tập)

Đề nghị bạn hoàn chỉnh bài hội thoại sau đây trong đó có sử dụng các động từ trong ngoặc.

Thí dụ:

JILL:             Well if you hadn't braked (brake) so hard, we wouldn't have had (have) the accident.

JACK:           If you_______________ (shout) at me, I_______________(brake) so hard.

JILL:            If you_________________ (rush) so much, I_____________ (shout) at you

JACK:           If you________________ (tread) on the plate, I____________ (rushed) to the hospital.

JILL:            But if you_______________(drop) the plate, I_______________ (tread) on it.

JACK:          And if you______________(ask) me to do the washing up, I______________________(drop) the plate.

JILL:            So, it's all my fault is it?

JACK:          Yes. If you_____________(ask) me to do the washing up, we_________________________(have) the accident.


Answers to Exercise in Lesson 16 (giải đáp cho Bài tập trong Bài 16):

1. People eat a lot of pies in Australia.               A lot of pies are eaten in Australia.

2. I have lost my hat.                                               My hat has been lost.

3. I will serve drinks later.                                     Drinks will be served later.

4. We speak English here.                                    English is spoken here

5. You must not touch the flowers.                    The flowers must not be touched


Answers to Exercise in Lesson 19 (giải đáp cho Bài tập trong Bài 19):

A. Have you spoken to Mary?                                    A asked if B had spoken to Mary.

B. Yes. I rang her this morning.                                B replied she had rung Mary this morning.

A. How are the arrangements for the party?        A asked B how the arrangements were for the party.

B. It'll be noisy. I hope the neighbours don't complain.   B explained that it'd be noisy and hoped that the neighbours wouldn't complain.

A. Well, we can always turn the volume down.      A suggested that they could always turn the volume down.

B. By the way, why don't you ask Betty along?       B told A to ask Betty along.

A. That's a good idea. See you tomorrow then.      A replied that it was a good idea and she would see A tomorrow.


Answers to Exercise in Lesson 20 (giải đáp cho Bài tập trong Bài 20)

JACK:           If you hadn't shouted at me, I wouldn't've braked so hard.

JILL:             If you hadn't rushed so much, I wouldn't've shouted at you

JACK:           If you hadn't treaded on the plate, I wouldn't've rushed to the hospital.

JILL:             But if you hadn't dropped the plate, I wouldn't've treaded on it.

JACK:           And if you hadn't asked me to do the washing up, I wouldn't've dropped the plate.

JILL:             So, it's all my fault is it?

JACK:           Yes. If you hadn't asked me to do the washing up, we wouldn't've had the accident.


Part 6 – THE SERIAL (chuyện đọc từng kỳ)

Episode 20:

          Well, the story is finished, but there are a few things I haven't explained. This is what happened at Richmond. The police had been watching the house all night. They knew that Mandy was tied to a chair, and Vincent had a gun. Just before mid-day, Vincent left his gun on a table and went to another room to talk to Pamela.

          The police broke into the house, arrested Pamela and Vincent, and untied Mandy. So I hadn't been needed after all. I was glad of that! Pamela was working for another group of researchers. She had pretended to be a friend of Diana's, and she had been with Diana when I phoned. She locked Diana in a room and travelled to Melbourne on Diana passport. It was lucky for her that they looked alike.

          Stanley Vincent was also in the gang. He had driven Cotton to the country at gunpoint. Cotton wouldn't tell him anything, so he took Cotton's second briefcase, then killed him. But the documents were not in the second briefcase, as we know.

          Vincent found the numbered disk and guessed that the documents must be at the hotel. So Cotton had been killed before Judy and I went on our fishing trip. Vincent had gone to the hotel, and when the safe key was missing, he broke into our house. And now, of course, Vincent and Pamela were under arrest. Vincent had been charged with the murder of Henry Cotton.

          'Thank goodness it's all over,' sighed Judy. 'In future, Joe, you must mind your own business. If you hadn't been so curious, we wouldn't have been involved!' I looked at Ben and Mandy, sitting together on the lounge. They looked very happy. I smiled.

          'If I hadn't been involved, Mandy wouldn't have met Ben, would she? I think this calls for a celebration. Champagne?'. And everyone agreed.

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END OF LESSON 20 (Lessons 21 and 22 are reviews and have no study notes)


'Everyday English From Australia' lessons were funded by AusAID (the Australian Government's aid agency) and produced by Radio Australia Vietnamese Service in cooperation with Voice of Vietnam. Script advice was provided by the English Language Centre, Victoria University (Melbourne).

'Everyday English From Australia' lessons form part of English learning content of BayVut website (www.bayvut.com) – a service provided by Radio Australia.

(Nguồn ABC English)