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Phần 5: Vốn từ vựng

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1) Clip 1: Vocabulary Range

2) Clip 2: Vocabulary Exercise

3) Printable Documents

     a) Notes for Study

IELTS Tip

Build your vocabulary on a range of topics. Remember that your topic vocabulary should include word forms (adjective, noun, verb and adverb), related vocabulary (synonyms, opposites) and collocations (adjective + noun or verb + adverb).

Try to learn some idiomatic expressions as well.

Watch your spelling. It counts too!

VOCABULARY

Expanding on information and extending topic vocabulary in your IELTS Writing tasks allow you to convey meaning more precisely. This also allows you to demonstrate your use of a wider range of vocabulary, and command of word forms and word order. These features, word forms and word order, describe Vocabulary, one of the criteria used to assess your writing.

Nominal Groups

In formal academic writing, one of the means by which information can be expanded on is through the use of nominal groups. A nominal group structure consists of a main noun which is surrounded by other words or phrases that serve to describe or characterise the noun.

Here is the structure of a nominal group:

premodifiers

+

head noun

+

postmodifiers

determiners* + adjectives

 

prepositional phrases

 

*Examples of Determiners

articles

a, an, the

possessives

my, your, his/her, its, their, one’s, whose

demonstratives

this, these, that, those

quantifiers

each, every, some, many, most, fewer, several

 

Types of Nominal Groups

There are four types of nominal groups:

i

 

head noun only – this is the main noun within the group or clause

 

awareness

 

ii

premodifiers

+

head noun

 

greater community

awareness

 

iii

 

head noun

+

postmodifier

 

awareness

of environmental issues

iv

premodifiers

+

head noun

+

postmodifier

greater community

awareness

of environmental issues

greater community awareness of environmental issues

 

Deconstruction of nominal groups

Nominal groups are important because they provide the subject matter or content of your essay.

Here is a topic sentence from a sample IELTS Writing Task 2 essay addressing the topic of recycling.

Community response to the importance of disposing of waste materials responsibly is reflected in its participation in various recycling programs.

The nominal groups in this topic sentence are deconstructed to see how information is expanded on and contextualised.

There are five nominal groups in this sentence. Here is a breakdown of those groups.

Nominal Group 1

Premodifier

adjective

+

head noun

community

response

An adjective is used to describe whose response, adding additional meaning.

community response

 

Nominal Group 2

head noun

+

Postmodifier

prepositional phrase

response

to the importance of disposing of waste materials (responsibly)

A prepositional phrase is used to add more information, in particular what the response is aimed at, namely the importance.

response to the importance of disposing of waste materials (responsibly)

 

Nominal Group 3

head noun

+

postmodifier

prepositional phrase

+

adverb -

the manner in which waste

should be disposed of

the importance

of disposing of waste materials

responsibly

Importance is now the head noun to which more information is added using a prepositional phrase to specify what is important of disposing of waste materials. The adverb responsibly modifies disposing.

the importance of disposing of waste materials responsibly

The information conveyed in the postmodifier can be expressed in the following simple sentence.

The (responsible) disposal of waste materials is important.

Using nominal groups allows you to include more complex structures in your writing.

 


Nominal Group 4

premodifier

determiner

+

head noun

its

participation

The premodifier its specifies whose, i.e. the community’s.

its participation

 

Nominal Group 5

head noun

+

postmodifier

prepositional phrase

participation

in various recycling programs

The postmodifier is used to expand on information, specifying what the participation will be in.

participation in various recycling programs

 

Using nominal groups allows you to communicate more meaning in a simple sentence. It is also an effective way of extending your topic vocabulary because you are using a greater number of words. This also gives you the opportunity to use more elaborate structures and convey meaning more precisely.

Nominalisation

Instead of verbs or verb phrases, it is possible to use nouns or noun phrases in written English. This also helps express ideas more precisely and concisely. Making verbs into nouns is called nominalisation.

Here are some examples of noun forms of verbs.

Nominalisation

verb

noun forms

 

 

thing

person

to consume

consumption

consumer

to apply

application

applicant

to conserve

conservation

conservationist

to investigate

investigation

investigator

to advertise

advertisement, advertising

advertiser

to find

finding(s)

finder

to develop

development

developer

to be aware

awareness

 

 


Using nominalisation

Nominalised language is commonly used in formal academic writing. Ideas can be expressed more precisely and concisely.

verb phrase

Waste materials need to be disposed of properly.

noun phrase

The proper disposal of waste materials is necessary.

To be able to change the verb phrase into a noun phrase requires a command of word forms and word order.

verb to be → is

adverbs in a verb phrase change to an adjective: properly → proper

 

Nominalisation is also useful for Academic Writing Task 1. It provides another way of expressing changes in graphs, charts, processes or any other pictorial information.

verb phrase

The number of Internet users increased significantly.

noun phrase

There was a significant increase in the number of Internet users.

 

 

verb phrase

It is evident that interest in the product grew steadily.

noun phrase

The steady growth of interest in the product is evident.

  

To be able to change the verb phrase into a noun phrase requires a command of word forms and word order.

verb + adverb → adjective + noun

increased significantly → significant increase

grew steadily → steady growth

 

Nominalisation is a technique used in paraphrasing. This is particularly helpful when paraphrasing information from a question topic in an IELTS Writing Task 2 for an introductory paragraph. Here is the first sentence of a question topic.

question topic

Over the last decade, many large capital cites are being rapidly restructured and redeveloped.

introduction

In recent times there has been a rapid restructuring and redevelopment of many cosmopolitan cities.

 

Apposition

Another way of expanding on information in your writing is using apposition. Here are two examples.

My friend, a teacher by profession, will be joining us for lunch.

His other film, quickly gaining in popularity, is a documentary.

Appositions are noun phrases which refer to the same grammatical structure. They are placed next to the structure they are defining or modifying.

Grammatical structure

noun phrase

apposition

noun phrase

 

My friend

a teacher by profession

gives more information about the friend

His other

film quickly gaining in popularity

gives more information about the film

  


     b) Learning Activities

Practise and consolidate your learning about vocabulary and word forms by completing our activities. The answers for all activities are on the last 2 pages.

ACTIVITY 1

Identify the nominal groups and apposition in the following paragraph.

Local communities are actively participating in various recycling programs to dispose of waste materials responsibly. The most common is household or domestic recycling. Many councils provide kerbside collection services for newspapers, glass, aluminium cans and plastic. These recyclables can significantly reduce the volume of rubbish which ends up in landfill sites. Another initiative, rapidly developing into a popular industry, is the recycling of green waste. This consists of shredding leaves, branches, trees and other materials to produce landscaping mulch, which serves to enrich soils in gardens and parks.

 

ACTIVITY 2

Complete the sentences with the correct noun form of the verbs or adjectives in brackets.

1. The ____________ (amend) to the bill was seen as a step in the right direction.

2. A vegetarian diet can lead to a ____________ (reduce) in the chances of developing chronic diseases.

3. The ___________ (decide) of the local council to suspend the burn off of bushland was welcomed by all.

4. There is no doubt that strict __________ (censor) of the internet is necessary for the sake of children.

5. The higher ___________ (consume) of fatty foods was a worrying trend.

6. All graduating students had to rate the _________ (deep) of their learning in the exit survey.

7. The statistics showed that the ___________ (produce) of iron ore dropped by 50% in 2009.

8. The line graph shows a slight ____________ (different) between then number of cinema goers and theatre attendees.

9. A thorough ____________ (re-evaluate) of the health care system was long overdue.

10. The findings from the research on childhood obesity will have ____________ (implicate) for future generations.

 


ACTIVITY 1 ANSWERS

Nominal groups

Local communities are actively participating in various recycling programs to dispose of waste materials responsibly.

Nominal Groups

 

premodifier + head noun

Local communities

 

The most common is household or domestic recycling.

Nominal Groups

 

premodifier + head noun

The most common

premodifier + head noun

household or domestic recycling

 

Many councils provide kerbside collection services for newspapers, glass, aluminium cans and plastic.

Nominal Groups

 

premodifier + head noun

Many councils

premodifier + head noun

kerbside collection services

head noun + prepositional phrase

services for newspapers, glass, aluminium cans and plastic

 

These recyclables can significantly reduce the volume of rubbish which ends up in landfill sites.

Nominal Groups

 

premodifier + head noun

These recyclables

head noun + prepositional phrase

the volume of rubbish

 

Another initiative, rapidly developing into a popular industry, is the recycling of green waste.

Nominal Groups

 

premodifier + head noun

Another initiative

noun phrase + apposition

Another initiative rapidly developing into a popular industry

premodifier + head noun

the recycling

head noun + prepositional phrase

recycling of green waste

 

This consists of shredding leaves, branches, trees and other materials to produce landscaping mulch, which serves to enrich soils in gardens and parks.

Nominal Groups

 

head noun

This

head noun + prepositional phrase

soils in gardens and parks

 

ACTIVITY 2 ANSWERS

1. amendment                      6. depth

2. reduction                           7. production

3. decision                             8. difference

4. censorship                       9. re-evaluation

5. consumption                    10. implications

 


     c) Transcript

Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I’m Margot Politis.

Today we’ll look at some strategies for meeting the requirements of vocabulary, one of the criteria used to assess IELTS candidates.

When writing, you can expand what you want to say by adding words that give more detail, or are more specific and descriptive.

This is a good way of showing the extent of your vocabulary.

Take this sentence for example:

Collection services can reduce rubbish.

What can you say to make this sentence more specific and descriptive?

First, look at ‘collection services’. Ask yourself who, what, why and where?

What sort of collection services reduce rubbish?

They could be 'weekly collection services' or 'better collection services'. You could also say 'more frequent collection services':

More frequent collection services can reduce rubbish.

You can do more than just use words in front of ‘collection services’. You can also add a phrase after it.

Ask yourself the same sort of questions: ‘what is collected, who is collecting it’?

So you can add:

More frequent collection services for recyclables can reduce rubbish.

You don’t have to stop at just one phrase. You might also want to say who does the collecting. So:

More frequent collection services for recyclables by councils can reduce rubbish.

You can also add words to the verb in the sentence. We know more collection can reduce rubbish – but by how much?

It can substantially reduce rubbish.

So:

More frequent collection services for recyclables by councils can substantially reduce rubbish.

Substantially is an adverb. It’s one of the forms of the word substantial.

Adverbs often end with ‘-ly’

Other words that mean a large amount are vast, considerable and great.

Their adverbs are vastly, considerably and greatly.

Any of these words could be used instead of ‘substantially’.

A good vocabulary is not simply the number of words you know. It’s being able to use all the forms of a word correctly.

For instance 'reduce' means to become smaller or to lessen. Listen to how it’s used in this clip from a story about sealing roads:

In Asia the cost of re-doing roads is very high. We can address that issue and give them a tightly bound surface, which will reduce the costs for the regional councils.

Will reduce the costs. Reduce - that’s the base form of the verb. Reduce is a regular verb with the forms reducing and reduced. He uses one of these here:

Here you have a car that is travelling along an untreated section of road and then hitting a treated section of the road. You can see that the dust is reduced by a significant amount.

Is reduced by a significant amount. That’s a verb form. But what form of reduce would you use as an adjective?

Our product very effectively binds the soils and particles that make up the materials for the roads. This means you can have a reduced cost in terms of the number of times that road authorities have to maintain and repair that road over a long period of time.

A reduced cost. The –ed form can also be used as an adjective like this.

reduced price

reduced pressure

Reduce has a noun form. Listen:

One of the problems of driving on an unsealed road is the amount of dust that comes off the surface. With our treatment, we find there’s a dramatic reduction in that dust problem.

The noun is reduction. You’ll find that –ion endings for nouns, -ly for adverbs and – ed for adjectives are very common.

When you learn new words it is important that you know all their forms and practise using them. It’s a good strategy for building your vocabulary.

So learn word forms.


Another good strategy is to know which prepositions are normally used with particular words.

Let’s look at the word ‘reason’, a word you’re likely to use in an IELTS essay.

What preposition is reason used with?

Listen to this woman talking about a famous road in Australia:

The Great Ocean road is probably the most spectacular coastal drive in the world. I think the reason for that is that it’s got such a variety of scenery from cool temperate rainforests to the cliffs and rock stacks around the Twelve Apostles.

She says, “the reason for that is…”. Reason can be followed by the preposition ‘for’.

You can say, reason for leaving … or reason for arguing

Look at ‘know’ for instance. With the verb form ‘know’ we use the preposition ‘about’, know about, like this woman when explaining why she makes a scrapbook of her life:

I’m creating something that gives me a chance to put something about who I am onto that page. I often think when I’m working on a project, “What would my kids like to know about me in 20 or 40 years time?

Know about me. But with the noun form ‘knowledge’, we use ‘of’, ‘knowledge of’.

Listen to this man use ‘knowledge of’ to talk about an art collection that students are studying:

We have students from overseas in the course. They get to get this first-hand knowledge of this terrific collection, but also they can take that back with them to the countries they come from.

So let’s recap.

You can add detail about who, what and where to sentences like this.

The dragon is paraded.

The colourful dragon is paraded.

The colourful dragon is noisily paraded.

The colourful dragon with people inside it is noisily paraded.

The colourful dragon with people inside it is noisily paraded down the street.

To do this you need to know that the adjective of the word colour is colourful and the adverb of noise is noisily.

And you need to correctly use phrases such as ‘with people inside it’ and ‘down the street’.

This is the kind of vocabulary the examiners are looking for.

You also need to be aware of the prepositions that go with certain words.

You say that you know about something:

I’m creating something that gives me a chance to put something about who I am onto that page. I often think when I’m working on a project, “What would my kids like to know about me in 20 or 40 years time?

But have knowledge of something:

We have students from overseas in the course. They get to get this first-hand knowledge of this terrific collection, but also they can take that back with them to the countries they come from.

And you say that you have a reason for doing something:

The Great Ocean road is probably the most spectacular coastal drive in the world. I think the reason for that is that it’s got such a variety of scenery from cool temperate rainforests to the cliffs and rock stacks around the Twelve Apostles.

That’s all for now.

To find more information about vocabulary visit our Study English website at: australianetwork.com/studyenglish.

Good luck with your studies.

 

(Nguồn UTS: Insearch and Australia Network)

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